From: BCantin@aol.com Date: Sun, 13 Sep 1998 13:28:17 EDT SEGA GENESIS/MEGA DRIVE F.A.Q. Version 1.5 September 1998 Maintained by: Barry Cantin (BCantin@aol.com) Contributors: John Hokanson Jr. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Ken Arromdee (email@example.com) TABLE OF CONTENTS ----------------- Introduction - About this FAQ Section 1 - General Info Section 2 - Technical Info Section 3 - The Games Section 4 - Peripherals Section 5 - Emulators Section 6 - Miscellaneous ************************** * Introduction * ************************** Shortly after releasing an update of the Sega CD FAQ, I was contacted by John Hokanson about helping him put together a similar document for the Sega Genesis (Mega Drive). I hadn't given it much thought before, due to the scope of the project, but decided to work on this with John since he had already done a good deal of work on it and I could fill in some of the details. John eventually became overwhelmed with other commitments and could no longer devote the time necessary to completing such a project, and sometime last year he mailed me much of what is contained in this document. I've since taken responsibility for the maintenance of the FAQ. This is really a first draft of the Genesis/Mega Drive FAQ. There are many, many gaps to fill in and I am doing them as I can. John has put a tremendous amount of work into this and received a great deal of assistance from Ken Arromdee. I was initially responsible for the title list (which is - in fact how I started the Sega CD FAQ) and then wrote up a section on the Sega 32X (which is now part of SlyDC's 32X FAQ). Now I have the task of updating and maintaining this FAQ, which is purely enjoyable since I love the Sega Genesis (and the portable Nomad). John Hokanson has written a large portion of this document, particularly the hardware technical areas. Much of what is included here was also culled from Usenet posts, and the authors are given credit at the beginning of the pertinent section. So here is the first cut, hope it is useful. Keep in mind that I am still working on it and still have a great deal of material to go through, so please bear with me on this. I still have odds & ends to add, but it will be some time before I can get to all the materials I have on hand to include them. I thought it might be good to get this version "out on the street" now, and feel that its content is sufficiently correct to release. Also please note that this is Version 1.5; Version 1.0 was (considered to be) the initial copy sent to me in 1996 by John Hokanson, to which I have added a very substantial amount of material. Thanks. %^) BWC 8/98 DISCLAIMER This document contains information on modifying hardware, caring for your hardware and software, and so forth. Procedures are described within that may damage your equipment (although not likely). If you perform any of the mods/cleaning procedures, etc. listed in this FAQ, you do so at your own risk. I - and the other authors of this FAQ - do not take responsibility for any broken hardware/software as a result of attempting anything described here. The information is presented as a convenience for Sega Genesis/Megadrive fans, and should be treated as such. ************************** *Section 1 - General Info* ************************** ------------------------------------------- 1.1 The Sega Genesis and Mega Drive Systems ------------------------------------------- The Genesis is a 16-bit home Video Game Console released in the US by Sega Enterprises in August of 1989. The system was designed in Japan as the "Mega Drive" and released in 1988. It was primarily marketed as a higher power alternative to the NES (Nintendo Entertainment System) and competed initially with that and NEC's new PC Engine. The Genesis had far more to offer then the NES, including better graphics, better sound (in stereo, as opposed to the NES mono), and greater speed. Genesis and MegaDrive cartridges are about four inches long, three inches high, and about 3/4" deep. Exceptions to this are those released by Electronic Arts ("EA"), which are approximately 3x3" square. Accolade cartridges are also approximately this size. Although narrower than standard Genesis cartridge size, they fit comfortably inside all versions of Genesis hardware. The Mega Drive is the original name for the system. It is known as the Mega Drive in all countries outside of North America. However, since this FAQ was compiled and written in the US the term "Genesis" will be used in respect to the aforementioned system. Unless otherwise noted, assume that any info pertaining to the Genesis, is correct for the Mega Drive. In the US, the Genesis was released in three different models. The first model was about 20" wide with a circular plate on the right half; the cartridge slot is in the center of this. There is also a volume control and headphone jack on this model. The Genesis 2 was released in 1994, and is much smaller. It's square, about 11" on each side, and thinner. This model does not have a headphone jack or a volume output. A third model Genesis ("Genesis 3") was released in 1998 by a company called Majesco, Inc. (Majesco Sales is also responsible for many early Genesis game title re-releases, and use cardboard boxes instead of the nicer plastic cases). It's even smaller than the model 2 Genesis (approx. 8" by 8") and is packaged without a game cartridge. The box is bright blue with "Sega!" scrawled across the top. A *portable* version of the Genesis, the Sega Nomad, was released in 1995. It is about the same size as a Game Gear but with squared corners is a little thicker. It features a high-quality 3" passive-matrix LCD screen and a full compliment of six buttons. The Nomad also can also be hooked to a television (there is a DIN-type output - Genesis II-style) and played simultaneously on the Nomad screen and the television. There is also a port for a second joypad to allow two-player play (although Player 1 must always use the Nomad joypad and buttons). The Nomad was released in North America and Japan. Unfortunately for Europe, Sega decided *not* to release the Nomad there. For more information about the Sega Nomad, seek out a copy of Chris Pickett's Sega Nomad FAQ (don't have a website address for it at this time). Another "portable" version of the Japanese Mega Drive was the "Air Mega Drive" (not certain about the name), which wasn't portable in that it had to be connected to a TV/monitor to play. This unit was designed to be used on airplanes for passengers to use in-flight. There were some compatibility problems with some of the earlier third-party cartridges (Electronic Arts titles: Budokan, Ishido, Zany Golf, a couple others) with later Genesis units. These can only be played on an *early* Model I Genesis, or on later models if you plug them into a Game Genie before putting them into your Genesis. Q: How can I tell if I have one of these early model Genesis units? A: (something to do with the wording on the top of the unit... don't know exactly) Q: If I do not have an early Genesis, is there ANY way I can play these early games on my newer Genesis system? A: If you have a Game Genie, it is possible - just plug the cart into the Genie and that into the Genesis. The lockout code of the newer model Genesis unit is then disabled and the game will play properly. Q: Will my Genesis cartridges fit inside a Master System game case? A: Although the cases are virtually identical from the outside, the cart sizes are different enough so that a Genesis cart will not quite fit inside a Master System case. But it's better than nothing. One item of note: often, Electronic Arts Genesis game manuals are much smaller than the slots allotted for them inside the case, and tend to just flop around loosely inside. (Pet peeve of the author's, obviously. %^) ------------------------------------------------------------ 1.2 Differences Between the Sega Genesis and Sega Mega Drive ------------------------------------------------------------ From the Sega Programming FAQ: ------------------------------ Physically, on the outside, the only difference is the plastic case, the cartridge shape is slightly different on the American version, smaller in size. On the inside there are four jumpers labeled J1 though J4. J1 and J2 is the language switch, between English and Japanese, J3 and J4 select the output between PAL and NTSC. You can build a switch that can allow you to select between these options. The diagram is included in this further down. The reason for the language switch is to keep people from getting the game before it is officially released elsewhere in the world. The newer Sega Machines do not have the jumpers, and hence you can not build a switch (as of yet). From the rec.games.video FAQ: ----------------------------- MEGA DRIVE: Same as Genesis. Compatibility is a bit tricky. The European and Australian machine called the Mega Drive is identical to the Genesis except that it emits a 50 hertz PAL signal. The Japanese one is identical to the Genesis except for (sometimes) the cartridge slot, and the language setting. First, to play games in the "wrong" machine you must plug them in. You can buy an adapter, or just cut away the plastic that keeps them from fitting. On a US/European machine, this is some plastic around the slot; on an older Japanese machine, this is the cartridge lock (the tab that pushes into the slot from the left when you turn on the machine). I never even needed to remove the cartridge lock, but some people have told me they did. Now that you've plugged the game in, it _might_ run; cartridges can read the language and 50/60 hertz setting, and some newer games are programmed to check these settings and decide not to run at all. The following games are locked out this way: Do not run in English mode: Japanese versions of After Burner II, Bare Knuckle 3, Chameleon Kid, Doraemon, Gunstar Heroes, Monster World 4, Ragnacenti, Rolling Thunder II, Super Monaco GP 2, Super SF2, Thunder Force IV, Virtua Racing, Yuu Yuu Hakusho. Do not run in Japanese mode: US versions of Aladdin, Bio-Hazard Battle, Castlevania Bloodlines, Cyborg Justice, Dragon's Fury, Eternal Champions, Flashback, Gauntlet IV, Gunstar Heroes, Landstalker, Lightening Force, Mazin Saga, Outrun 2019, Phantasy Star IV, Ren and Stimpy, Rocket Knight Adventures, SF2CE, Shadowrun, Shining Force, Shinobi 3, Streets of Rage II, Streets of Rage III, Subterrania, Sunset Riders, Thunderstrike (CD), World of Illusion, X-Men. Do not run in 50 hertz mode: US versions of Flashback, Sonic Spinball, Streets of Rage II, World of Illusion, World Series Baseball (And probably most of the ones that don't run in Japanese mode, too.) Does not run in 60 hertz mode: European version of Xenon2. This list is nowhere near complete; these are just a few examples. To play English/Japanese carts, you need a language switch, or a special adapter which acts like one. To play European/non-European carts, you may need a 50/60 hertz switch (see below). Some European Mega Drive games will play perfectly on US systems. (The language switch is useful in its own right. Some games have dual ROMs, and play US versions in US/European machines and Japanese versions in Japanese machines; you can see both versions by installing the switch.) Q: Can my Game Genie work with foreign cartridges? A: It appears to work with many, but I cannot vouch that it will work with all of them. This is a great place to start trying, though. **************************** *Section 2 - Technical Info* **************************** ---------------------------------------------------------- 2.1 Genesis Technical Specs ---------------------------------------------------------- Taken from official (yet apparently released) Sega Documentation: 68000 @ 8 MHz main CPU 1 MByte (8 Mbit) ROM Area 64 Kbytes RAM Area VDP (Video Display Processor) dedicated video display processor - controls playfield & sprites - capable of DMA - Horizontal & Vertical interrupts 64 Kbytes of dedicated VRAM (Video Ram) 64 x 9-bits of CRAM (Color RAM) Z80 @ 4 MHz controls PSG (Programmable Sound Generator) & FM Chips 8 KBytes of dedicated Sound Ram VIDEO: NOTE: Playfield and Sprites are character-based Display Area (visual) - 40 chars wide x 28 chars high each char is 8 x 8 pixels pixel resolution = 320 x 224 - 3 Planes 2 scrolling playfields 1 sprite plane definable priorities between planes - Playfields: 6 different sizes 1 playfield can have a "fixed" window playfield map - each char position takes 2 Bytes, that includes: char name (10 bits); points to char definition horizontal flip vertical flip color palette (2 bits); index into CRAM priority scrolling: - 1 pixel scrolling resolution - horizontal: whole playfield as unit each character line each scan line - vertical: whole playfield as unit 2 char wide columns - Sprites: 1 x 1 char up to 4 x 4 chars up to 80 sprites can be defined up to 20 sprites displayed on a scan line sprite priorities - Character Definitions 4 bits/pixel; points to color register 4 bytes/scanline of char 32 bytes for complete char definition playfield & sprite chars are the same! COLOR: - Uses CRAM (part of the VDP) 64 9-bit wide color registers - 64 colors out of 512 possible colors 3 bits of Red 3 bits of Green 3 bits of Blue 4 palettes of 16 colors - 0th color (of each palette) is always transparent OTHER: - DMA removes the 68000 from the BUS can move 205 Bytes/scanline during VBLANK - there are 36 scanlines during VBLANK - DMA can move 7380 Bytes during VBLANK - Horizontal & Vertical interrupts SOUND: - Z80 controls: PSG (TI 76489 chip) FM chip (Yamaha YM 2612) - 6-channel stereo Z80 can access ROM data 8 KBytes RAM HARDWARE: - 2 controllers joypad 3 buttons Start button (A Three Button Variation of the above was later made available) - 1 external port - 2 video-outs (RF & RGB) - audio jack (stereo) - volume control (for audio jack) ----------------------------------------------- A Brief Explanation of the Genesis Hardware Taken directly from the Sega Programming FAQ: The genesis graphics hardware consists of 2 scrollable planes. Each plane is made up of tiles. Each tile is an 8x8 pixel square with 4 bits per pixel. Each pixel can thus have 16 colors. Each tile can use 1 of 4 color tables, so on screen you can get 64 colors at once, but only 16 in any specific tile. Tiles require 32 bytes. There is 64K of graphics memory. This would allow for 2048 unique tiles if memory were used for nothing else. Each plane can be scrolled independently in various ways. Planes consist of tables of words, where each word describes a tile. The word contains 11 bits for describing which tile, 2 bits for flip x and flip y, 2 bits for the selection of the color table, and 1 bit for a depth selector. Sprites are composed of tiles also. A sprite can be up to 4 tiles wide by four tiles high. Since each tile is 8x8, this means sprites can be anywhere from 8x8 pixels to 32x32 pixels. There can be 80 sprites on screen at one time. On a scan line you can have 10 32 pixel wide sprites or 20 16 pixel wide sprites. Each sprite can only have 16 colors but they are out of the 4 different color tables. Color 0=transparent. Colors are 3 bits for each gun, so 512 colors are possible. There is a memory copier that is in hardware. This does fast copies from the 68000 ram into the graphics ram. The 68000 runs at about 8 MHz. It has 64K of memory devoted to it. The ROM cartridge appears at 0. The Z80 has 8K of ram. The 68000 can download programs to the z80 and let them go. The z80 can access the graphics chips or the sound synth chips but usually those things are controlled by the 68000. The sound chips consist of a Yamaha synthesis chip and a TI programmable sound generator. The PSG has 3 square wave tones and 1 white noise tone. Each tone/noise channel can have its own frequency and volume. The Yamaha chips are based on FM synthesis. There are 6 voices with 4 operators each. The chips are similar to those used in the Yamaha DX27 and DX100 synthesizers. By setting up registers a rich variety of sounds can be created. --------------------------------- Also of note (by John Hokanson): The Yamaha YM 2612 FM Synthesis Chip is based on the Yamaha 2151 (which was used in earlier Sega Arcade Games). Ironically it's of a higher quality then the OPL2/3 FM Synthesis chips produced by Yamaha and used in Creative Labs PC sound cards such as the popular "Sound Blaster" line. The Z80 chip used to issue instructions to the YM 2612, served a duel purpose in that it provided backwards compatibility with the older Sega Master System (predecessor to the Genesis). When used with the "Power Base Converter" SMS carts could be inserted into the Genesis and use the Z80 as the main CPU (At which point the 68000 was basically inactive). Though the Genesis could only display a maximum of 64 colors at any given time, special software techniques such as HAM (Hold and Modify) could be used to boost color output. Such a technique was used in the game "Eternal Champions", which had an output of 256 colors. Sega CD Based games (such as "Snatcher") also used this method. ------------------------------- 2.2 Cartridge Pin Configuration ------------------------------- To be added in a later release. ------------------------------ 2.3 Joystick Pin Configuration ------------------------------ To be added in a later release. --------------------------- 2.4 Video Pin Configuration --------------------------- From: QUINNGRANFOR@delphi.com Newsgroups: rec.games.video.sega The pin configuration is as follows.... Match pin----------O Red-------------O O----Negative sync O---Blue Audio(mono)-O O---Composite Video Vcc +5 volts---O O---Green Ground--O The O's are the pins...hope this helps. Quinn Granfor --------------------------- 2.5 NTSC and PAL formats --------------------------- NTSC and PAL are television broadcast frequencies. NTSC is about 60 (actually 59.94) fields per second, 525 lines per frame (each frame is 2 fields). PAL is 50 fields per second and 625 lines per frame. Parts of Europe and Hong Kong use PAL, while North America and Japan use NTSC. There were NTSC and PAL versions of the Genesis/Megadrive released in the appropriate regions. To the best of my knowledge, there was never a SECAM (other parts of Europe) model. Q: What happens when I play a PAL game on an NTSC console, or vice versa without the switch? A: If you play a NTSC game on a PAL console and the game is not programmed to notice what kind of console you're on, there are two effects: first, the game's screen is squashed because the 525 lines fit on a narrower portion of the screen, and second, the game runs about 17 percent slower _if_ the game's timing depends on events that happen at a specified rate compared to the frame. (Or if its timing depends on the current, but it probably won't, because part of Japan is 50 hertz but 60 fields per second.) The opposite happens in reverse: the screen is stretched out (and probably rolls badly) and the game is too fast. You can correct this problem by building a 50/60Hz Switch. BUILDING A 50/60Hz (NTSC/PAL) SWITCH You can build a 50/60 hertz switch on a Genesis/Mega Drive like a language switch, but using jumpers JP3 and JP4. The standard setting is 50 in PAL areas such as Europe, and 60 in NTSC areas like the US and Japan. In the 60 hertz mode, the game is faster and the screen taller; however, not all TVs and monitors in Europe can display this mode. Some American/Japanese games are protected to keep Europeans from playing them; this protection checks the 50/60 hertz setting. You can often get around it by installing the switch and switching when starting the game, then switching back afterwards. Some European games are simple ports of American or Japanese games and are not redesigned for 50 hertz, so work faster and with "better" screen proportions if played at 60 hertz. ---------------------------------------- 2.6 The Japanese/English language switch ---------------------------------------- In order to make your Genesis/Megadrive into a Japanese machine (internally), you can build a switch that will convert the electronics internally and fool your machine into thinking it's Japanese. Many cartridges have both versions (English and Japanese) built in, and the language switch will bring forth the appropriate version. Here's how to build your own. Note: I do not take responsibility for what any reader(s) decide to do to their hardware or software; we are not liable nor responsible.. this info is presented as such. On a Genesis/MD, there are jumpers labeled JP1, JP2, JP4, and JP3. The Genesis has a capacitor on JP1 and a trace on JP2; the Mega Drive has a capacitor on JP2 and a trace on JP1. The bottom ends of JP1 and JP2 are connected together. So if you cut the trace and the top end of the capacitor, and install a DPDT switch between them which reconnects them either unchanged or swapped left to right, you have a language switch. You'll need some wire, a soldering iron, solder, and a DPDT switch. Some machines have an open circuit instead of the capacitor. Also, I've been told that even if there is a capacitor, you can throw it out and leave an open circuit. Either way, the switch is a lot simpler, requiring a SPDT switch and less wire and solder. Several people have told me (JH) that you could just cut both JP1 and JP2 and put a SPST switch on JP1. This is even simpler, but I'm not sure it really works, as opposed to putting your machine in an intermediate state that only sort-of works. The redesigned Genesis 2 machines don't appear to have either the capacitor or circuit. Nobody yet knows how to make the language switch for one, though language switch adapter/cartridges should still work. IF YOUR MACHINE HAS NO CAPACITOR (or if you want to cross your fingers and throw away your capacitor) and is not a Genesis 2: Cut JP2. The trace might be covered with paint and hard to see. (If you started with a Mega Drive, JP2 is open and you have to cut JP1 instead.) If you aren't sure which end I mean by "bottom", just check the back of the board to see which end is connected together. Original state of machine: After cutting: JP2 top JP1 top JP2 top JP1 top | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | \ / \ / \_______/ \_______/ bottom of both bottom of both Add a SPDT switch which can be in one of two positions: ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . JP2 top JP1 top . . | | . . | | _________ | o o | | \ | | \ | \___o___/ | | . \ / . \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - - bottom of both ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . JP2 top JP1 top . . | | . . | | _________ | o o | | / | | / | \___o___/ | | . \ / . \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - - bottom of both ----------------------------------------------------------------- IF YOUR MACHINE DOES HAVE THE CAPACITOR: Cut both sides. (Note: if you started with a Japanese Mega Drive the capacitor will be on the side labeled X instead) Original state of machine: After cutting: JP2 top JP1 top JP2 top JP1 top | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | X | ### X | ### | ### | ### | ### | ### \ / \ / \_______/ \_______/ bottom of both add switch which can be in one of two positions: JP2 top JP1 top (Connect 2 to 2 | | and 1 to 1) | | 2 1 2 1 1 2 ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | o o o o | | ` | \ \ | X | ###` ` | \ \ | | ### ` ` \____o__o____/ | ### ` ` ' ' \ / ` `- - - - -' ' \_______/ ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' bottom of both JP2 top JP1 top (Connect 2 to 2 | | and 1 to 1) | | 2 1 2 1 1 2 ______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | o o o o | | ` | / / | X | ###` ` | / / | | ### ` ` \____o__o____/ | ### ` ` ' ' \ / ` `- - - - -' ' \_______/ ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' bottom of both ---------------------------------------------- 2.7 Playing your Genesis on a computer monitor ---------------------------------------------- The Genesis can connect to an analog RGB monitor with a similar scan rate; this means an analog RGB monitor for use with an Amiga, Atari ST, or Apple //gs. An analog RGB multisync monitor would also work; a digital monitor (CGA or EGA only for PC's) will not. ----------------------------------------------- 2.8 How to I build an RGB Cable for the Genesis ----------------------------------------------- From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dennis Gale Brown) Newsgroups: rec.games.video.sega This is an article I wrote last year to post here. I'm posting it again. This is probably not the best way to hook up the Genesis to a monitor but it works. I have no clue what the "new" Genesis is like, so this may or may not work with it. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Here's how I hooked up my Genesis to my NEC Multisync II: First, I went to Radio Shack and bought the following parts: 274-026 8-pin DIN plug (Genesis end) 276-1427 9 Position D-shell MALE connector 276-1513 Hood for above 278-775 9-conductor wire (sold by the foot; I got 3') Then I checked out the Genesis Monitor pinout from the FAQ: (looking at port itself) 1 . 8 . 7 2 . . . 6 3 . . 5 4 ' (these numbers probably aren't correct but they match my list below!): 1 - Negative Combined Sync 2 - Composite Video 3 - Green 4 - Ground 5 - +5 Volts 6 - Audio 7 - Red 8 - Green Then I checked out the pinout for the Multisync: 1 2 3 4 5 . . . . . . . . . 6 7 8 9 2 - Sync 3 - Blue (analog) 4 - Green (analog) 5 - Red (analog) 6 - Ground (again, numbers are probably wrong, and this isn't the full pin-out, but it's enough) After this, it's just a matter of putting things together. Using the 8-pin DIN connector requires some soldering, but the 9-pin connector I chose can simply have the pins clamped onto the wires. One note: You may have to bend the pins in the 8-pin connector slightly to make it fit in the Genesis. I had to bend the middle pin down a bit and the two top pins outward. After that, no problem. Final word: Do this at your own risk. This probably isn't the best way to go about this, but it does work. If your equipment blows up, don't blame me! Have fun... BTW, If you have a different monitor, I can't help you. All I can say is that if it works with an Amiga 500/1000/2000, it probably works with the Genesis (similar if not identical scan rates), provided you have the correct pinouts and connectors... ------------------------------------------ 2.9 How to build a Genesis Joystick/Joypad ------------------------------------------ If you have trouble finding joypads in your area, or want a specially- configured joypad, the following post is for you. Otherwise, nowadays it is easy to find brand new Genesis joypads being dumped on the market as the 16-bit gaming market dies out. Date: Tue, 2 Mar 93 08:10:28 CST From: email@example.com (Neal Patrick Howland) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Genesis joystick pinouts Yes folks! It is the much requested Genesis joystick pinout information!!! <much applause> First some background info: The chip inside the controller is a 74HC157. This is a high-speed cmos quad 2-line to 1-line multiplexer. Basically how this works is there are two inputs ( A and B ) for every output ( Y ). There are four groups like this. There is one select signal for the whole chip. When the select signal is low, the output ( Y ) is the same as input A. When the select signal is high, the output Y is the same as input B. The pinout for the chip is as follows: Pin 1 - Select Pin 16 - Vcc (+5V) Pin 2 - 1A Pin 15 - G (? must be low) Pin 3 - 1B Pin 14 - 4A Pin 4 - 1Y Pin 13 - 4B Pin 5 - 2A Pin 12 - 4Y Pin 6 - 2B Pin 11 - 3A Pin 7 - 2Y Pin 10 - 3B Pin 8 - Gnd Pin 9 - 3Y All the controls are done with switches. Up is a switch, Down is a switch, etc. Now, I will be referring to the output of these switches later on. What I mean is that the output is usually high, that is when the switch isn't pressed. When the button is pushed, the output goes low. This is accomplished by connecting the output to +5V through a 10k resistor. The button is then attached between the output and ground. It looks like this: +5V -----/\/\/------+--------- Output 10k | | / | Ground -----/ -------+ button (normally open) For all of those who could actually decipher the above schematic, congratulations! I will now run down what lines from the plug are connected to what. The line numbers are determined as follows, looking straight at the plug on the front of the Genesis the numbers are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (For those of you who buy a joystick cable from radio shack the pin #'s to wire colors are as follows: 1-black 2-brown 3-red 4-orange 5-get cup from bag sorry about that, lets start again 1-white 2-blue 3-green 4-brown 5-yellow 6-orange 7-red 8-black 9-gray, ) anyway, line connections: Line 1 - Up output Line 2 - Down output These are the only two direct connections Line 3 - Pin 4 of the chip output 1Y Line 4 - Pin 7 of the chip output 2Y Line 5 - This line carries in +5V. It is connected to the +5V bus line. Line 6 - Pin 9 of the chip output 3Y line 7 - Pin 1 of the chip this carries in a select signal from the Genesis. This is a signal which varies rapidly and controls which input goes through the output Line 8 - Ground This is connected to the Ground bus line. Line 9 - Pin 12 of the chip output 4Y Now for the chips pin connections: Pin 1 - Line 7 (select) Pin 2 - Ground (1A) don't ask me why they do this. Maybe future expansion Pin 3 - Left (1B) Pin 4 - Line 3 (1Y) Pin 5 - Ground (2A) again, possibly future expansion Pin 6 - Right (2B) Pin 7 - Line 4 (2Y) Pin 8 - Ground (GND) Pin 9 - Line 6 (3Y) Pin 10 - Button B (3B) Pin 11 - Button A (3A) Pin 12 - Line 9 (4Y) Pin 13 - Button C (4B) Pin 14 - Start (4A) Pin 15 - Ground (G) This must be connected to ground Pin 16 - +5V (Vcc) Power source for the chip Anyway that's all the info needed to build your own joystick. Now as an added bonus, additional information! A simple source for a joystick cable is the Radio Shack joystick extension cable. It is around $5 and is 10 ft. long. Just snip off the connector that won't plug into the Genesis, strip the wires back, and use the color pinout list I gave above. I went to my local arcade game repair company today and purchased the supplies I needed. They were much cheaper than I expected. Things you would need to buy from them would be: an 8-way joystick this ran me $15 3 buttons $2.50 apiece 3.0 Game List There were approximately 700 game cartridges released for the Sega Genesis. I cannot vouch for each and every one of these listed here, but for the most part the list is accurate release-wise. I still have a few blanks in there, and do have most of the info at my disposal. It takes time to get each and every piece of information, so in order to release this now I just left the ones I don't have yet blank. Some titles have been re-released with different publishers; I try to consider both when listing this. More information on this can be found after the game list. Note: Some games do not comfortably fit into one single category. In these cases, two categories were assigned to the game type to describe them better. Game types (these are my definitions, and I do not claim them to be absolute): Adventure - game contains elements of exploration and requires fulfilling some sort of quest or other obligation(s) before moving to a higher level. "Isoadventure" indicates that the game uses an "isometric" perspective, which means that the character and surrounding area are viewed from a 45-degree angle between head-on and sideways. (Move squares may appear as diamonds) Arcade - action/reflex-based game based on arcade title. Board game - based on/conversion of popular board game. Educational - game teaches (mainly youngsters) various things during play. Fighting - if the description just says "fighting" then it's a 1-on-1 fighting game where the objective is to win 2 out of 3 matches then move on to the next opponent. If the description is "platform/fighting" then the game is a fight-based platform game, in which you must fight your way through various scenes and environments and beat the boss at the end of each level. Flt sim - flight simulator. Game provides 1st-person perspective view during flight sequences. Multi - game has multiple formats. Platform - game uses platforms (originally defined by "Super Mario Bros.", in which Mario jumps from platform to platform) in its setting. Can be a shooter or a fighting game. Puzzle - game requires solving various levels/types of puzzles. Quiz - game as numerous question/answer quizzes for player. Racing - typically a car racing game, can be 1st-person perspective or over-the-driver view. RPG - "Role Playing Game". You take on the persona of the main character of the game, and build various attributes (strength, attack and defense abilities, etc.) while fulfilling a quest. Shooter - game's primary objective it to shoot the bad guys. Can be vertical, horizontal, with or without platforms. A "1st Person Shooter" is one in which the perspective is from the player, PC examples include "Doom", "Wolf 3D", and "Quake". Sim - When attached to "Strategy", refers to a battle simulation. Could also refer to hardware/vehicle simulations. Sports - pretty obvious, huh? %^) Strategy - game has elements of planning and decision-making, may be turn-based or real-time. Also: The publisher(s) listed apply to the North American releases only. Name Type Publisher ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Ninjas Platform/Fight Sony Imagesoft 52-in-1 (2) Multi Active Ent. 6-In-1 Menacer Cart Shooting Sega 6-Pak Multi Sega 688 Attack Sub Strategy/sim Sega AAAHH!!! Real Monsters Platform Viacom Abrams Battle Tank Strategy Sega Addams Family Platform/Strat Flying Edge Addams Family Values Platform Ocean Advanced D&D: Warriors of the Eternal Sun RPG Sega Adventures of Batman and Robin Platform/Fight Sega Adventures of Mighty Max Platform Ocean Adventures of Rocky & Bullwinkle Platform Absolute Aero the Acrobat Platform Sunsoft Aero the Acrobat 2 Platform Sunsoft Aerobiz Strategy Koei Aerobiz Supersonic Strategy Koei After Burner II Shooter Sega Air Buster Shooter Kaneco Air Diver Shooter/Sim Seismic Aladdin Platform Sega Alex Kidd in the Enchanted Castle Platform Sega Alien 3 Arcade Arena Alien Storm Action Sega Alisia Dragoon Adventure Game Arts Altered Beast Platform Sega Amazing Tennis Sports American Gladiators Sports Gametek Andre Agassi Tennis Sports Tecmagik Animaniacs Platform Konami Aquatic Games - James Pond Sports EA Arcade Classics Arcade Sega Arcade's Greatest Hits Arcade Williams Arch Rivals Sports Flying Edge Arcus Odyssey RPG/Adventure Renovation Ariel - The Little Mermaid Platform Sega Arnold Palmer's Tournament Golf Sports Sega Arrow Flash Platform/Shoot Renovation Art Alive Educational Sega Art of Fighting Fighting Asterix and the Great Rescue Platform Sega Atomic Robo Kid Shooter Treco Atomic Runner Shooter/Platfm Data East ATP Tour Tennis Sports EA Sports Awesome Possum Platform Tengen ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ B.O.B. Platform EA Back to the Future III Ballz Fighting Accolade Barbie Platform/misc Hi-Tech Expr. Barkley: Shut Up and Jam! Sports Accolade Barkley: Shut Up and Jam 2 Sports Accolade Barney's Hide & Seek Educational Sega Bass Masters Classic Sports Black Pearl Bass Masters Classic Pro Edition Sports T*HQ Batman Platform/Fight Sega Batman Forever Platform/Fight Acclaim Batman Returns Platform Sega Batman: Revenge of the Joker Platform/Fight Sunsoft Battle Master Battle Squadron Shooter EA Battletech Shooter/Sim Battletoads Platform/Fight Tradewest Battletoads/Double Dragon Fighting Tradewest Beast Wrestler Fighting Renovation Beauty & the Beast: Belle's Quest Platform Sunsoft Beauty & the Beast: Roar of the Beast Platform Sunsoft Beavis and Butthead Platform Viacom Berenstain Bears: Camping Adventure Platform Sega Best of the Best Karate Fighting Beyond Oasis Adv/RPG Sega Bill Walsh College Football Sports EA Sports Bill Walsh College Football '95 Sports EA Sports Bimini Run Shooter NuVision Bio Hazard Battle Shooter Sega Blades of Vengeance Adventure EA Blaster Master 2 Shooter/Platfm Sunsoft Block Out Puzzle EA Bonanza Brothers Bonkers Platform Sega Boogerman Platform Interplay Boxing Legends of the Ring Sports Brett Hull Hockey '95 Sports Accolade Brutal: Paws of Fury Fighting Gametek Bubba 'n Stix Bubble & Squeak Platform Sunsoft Bubsy Platform Accolade Bubsy II Platform Accolade Buck Rogers RPG/Adventure EA Budokan (1) Fighting EA Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble Platform Sega Bulls vs. Blazers Sports EA Bulls vs. Lakers Sports EA Burning Force Shooter Namco Buster Douglas Boxing Sports Sega Busy Town Cadash Platfm/Fighter Taito Caesars Palace Strategy Virgin Cal Ripken Jr. Baseball Sports Mindscape Caliber .50 Shooter Mentrix California Games Sports Sega Captain America Platform/shoot Data East Castlevania Bloodlines Platform Konami Centurion: Defender of Rome Strategy EA Chakan Platform/Fight Sega Champions - World Class Soccer Sports Championship Bowling Sports Mentrix Championship Pool Sports Mindscape/SWT Championship Pro Am Racing Tradewest Chase HQ II Racing Taito Chavez II Sports Chester Cheetah Platform Kaneco Chester Cheetah's Wild Wild Quest Platform Chi Chi's Pro Challenge Golf Sports Virgin Chiki Chiki Boys Chuck Rock Platform Virgin Chuck Rock II Platform Virgin Clayfighter Fighting Interplay Cliffhanger Platform/Fight Sony Imagesoft Clue Board Game Parker Bros. Coach K College Basketball Sports EA Sports College Football National Championship Sports Sega Sports College Football National Championship II Sports Sega Sports College Football USA '96 Sports EA Sports College Football USA '97 Sports EA Sports College Slam Sports Acclaim Columns Puzzle Sega Columns III Puzzle Vic Tokai Combat Cars Racing Accolade Comix Zone Platform Sega Contra Hard Corps Shooter/Platfm Konami Cool Spot Platform Virgin Cosmic Spacehead Platform Codemasters Crackdown Action/Strat. Sage's Creation Crossfire Crue Ball Pinball EA Crusader of Centy Action RPG Atlus Crystal's Pony Tale Adventure/Pltfm Sega Club Cutthroat Island Platform Acclaim Cyber Cop Platform Virgin Cyberball Sports Sega Cyborg Justice Fighting Sega Dark Castle Adventure EA Dashin' Desperadoes Platform/Racing Data East David Robinson's Supreme Court Sports Sega Davis Cup Tennis Sports Tengen Deadly Moves Fighting Kaneco Death and Return of Superman Death Duel Shooter Razorsoft Decapattack Platform Sega Demolition Man Desert Demolition - Road Runner Platform Sega Desert Strike Shooter/Strat. EA Devilish Arcade Sage's Creation Dick Tracy Platform/Fight Sega Dick Vitale's College Hoops Sports Dino Land Pinball Renovation Dinosaur's Tale Platform Hi-Tech Ent. Dinosaurs for Hire Platform DJ Boy Fighting/Platfm Kaneco Doom Troopers Double Dragon Fighting/Platfm Tradewest Double Dragon 3: The Arcade Game Fighting/Platfm Tradewest Double Dragon V Fighting Tradewest Double Dribble Sports Konami Dr. Robotnik's Bean Machine Puzzle Sega Dracula (Bram Stoker's) Platform/fight Sony Imagesoft Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story Fighting Acclaim Dragon's Fury Pinball Tengen Dragon's Revenge Pinball Tengen Duel: Test Drive II Racing Accolade Dune Strategy Virgin Dynamite Duke Platform Sega Dynamite Headdy Platform Sega E-SWAT Shooter Sega EA Hockey - European League Sports EA Sports Earnest Evans Platform Renovation Earth Defense (2) Shooter Realtec Earthworm Jim Platform Playmates Earthworm Jim 2 Platform Playmates Ecco: Tides of Time Adventure Sega Ecco Jr. Educational Sega Club Ecco the Dolphin Adventure Sega El Viento Platform Renovation Elemental Master ESPN Baseball Tonight Sports Sony Imagesoft ESPN National Hockey Night Sports Sony Imagesoft ESPN Speed World Racing Sony Imagesoft ESPN Sunday Night NFL Sports Sony Imagesoft Eternal Champions Fighting Sega Evander Holyfield Boxing Sports Ex-Mutants Platform/Fight Exile Action RPG Renovation Exo Squad Shooter Playmates F-117 Night Storm Shooter/Flt Sim EA F-15 Strike Eagle II Shooter/Flt Sim Microprose F-22 Interceptor Shooter/Flt Sim EA Faery Tale Adventure Adventure/RPG EA Family Feud Quiz Gametek Fantasia Platform Sega Fantastic Dizzy Platform Codemasters Fatal Fury Fighting Takara Fatal Fury 2 Fighting Takara Fatal Labyrinth Adventure Sega Fatal Rewind Shooter/Platfm EA Ferrari Grand Prix Challenge Racing Flying Edge FIFA Soccer Sports EA Sports FIFA Soccer '95 Sports EA Sports FIFA Soccer '96 Sports EA Sports FIFA Soccer '97 Sports EA Sports Fighting Masters Fighting Treco Final Zone Shooter Renovation Fire Shark Shooter Dreamworks Flashback Platform/Adv. US Gold Flicky Platform Sega Flintstones Platform Taito Foreman for Real Sports Flying Edge Forgotten Worlds Fighting Capcom Formula One Racing Domark Frank Thomas - Big Hurt Baseball Sports Acclaim Frankenstein Platform Sony Imagesoft Fun and Games Educational Tradewest Funny World/Balloon Boy (2) Arcade Realtec G-Loc Shooter (1st P) Sega Gadget Twins Platform Gametek Gaiares Shooter Renovation Gain Ground Adventure/Shoot Renovation Galahad Shooter/strat Sega Galaxy Force II Shooter Sega Garfield Caught In The Act Platform Sega Gargoyles Platform Disney Int. Gauntlet IV Adv/Shooter Tengen Gemfire Strategy Koei General Chaos Shooter/strat EA Generations Lost Genghis Khan II Strategy Koei George Foreman KO Boxing Sports Flying Edge Ghostbusters Platform/shoot Sega Ghouls 'n' Ghosts Platform Sega Global Gladiators Gods Platform Mindscape Golden Axe Fighting/Platfm Sega Golden Axe II Fighting/Platfm Sega Goofy's Hysterical Tour Platform Absolute Granada Shooter Renovation Great Circus Mystery Platform Capcom Great Waldo Search Puzzle T*HQ Greatest Heavyweights Sports Sega Sports Greendog Grind Stormer Shooter Tengen Growl Fighting/Platfm Taito Gunstar Heroes Platform/Shootr Sega Hardball Sports Ballistic/Accolade Hardball III Sports Accolade Hardball '94 Sports Accolade Hardball '95 Sports Accolade Hard Drivin' Racing Tengen Harrint Haunting (Starring Polterguy) Arcd/Adventure EA Head-On Soccer Sports Heavy Nova Fighting Hellfire Shooter Seismic Herzog Zwei Strategy Sega High Seas Havoc Platform Hit the Ice Sports Taito Home Alone Platform Sega Home Alone 2 Platform Sega Hook Platform Sony Imagesoft Humans Puzzle Immortal Adv/Isoplatfm EA Incredible Crash Dummies Platform Incredible Hulk Platform US Gold Indiana Jones: Last Crusade Platform/Fight Insector X Shooter Sage's Creation International Tour Tennis Sports EA Sports Ishido (2) Puzzle EA Izzy's Quest for the Olympic Rings Jack Nicklaus Power Challenge Golf Sports Ballistic/Accolade James Bond 007: The Duel Platform Domark James Pond Platform EA James Pond 2: Codename Robocod Platform EA James Pond 3 Platform EA Jammit Sports Virgin Jennifer Capriati Tennis Sports Renovation Jeopardy! Quiz Gametek Jeopardy! Deluxe Edition Quiz Gametek Jeopardy! Sports Edition Quiz Gametek Jewel Master Platform Sega Joe & Mac Platform Takara Joe Montana Football Sports Sega Joe Montana Football 2 Sports Sega Joe Montana Football '93 Sports Sega Joe Montana Football '94 Sports Sega John Madden Football Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '92 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '93 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '94 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '95 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '96 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '97 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football '98 Sports EA Sports John Madden Football Championship Sports EA Sports Jordan vs. Bird Sports Judge Dredd Platform/Fight Acclaim Junction Puzzle Bignet USA Jungle Book (9) Platform Virgin/Sega Jungle Strike Shooter/Strat EA Jurassic Park Platform Sega Jurassic Park: Rampage Edition Platform/Adv Sega Jurassic Park: The Lost World Platform/Adv Sega Justice League Task Force Fighting Acclaim Ka Ge Ki Fighting Sage's Creation Kawasaki Superbike Challenge Racing Time-Warner Int. Kid Chameleon Platform Sega King of the Monsters Fighting Takara King of the Monsters 2 Fighting Takara King Salmon Sports Vic Tokai King's Bounty Adv/strategy EA Klax Puzzle Tengen Krusty's Super Fun House Action/Puzzle Acclaim Lakers vs. Celtics Sports EA Landstalker Adventure/RPG Sega Last Action Hero Platform/Fight Sony Img. Last Battle Fighting Sega Lawnmower Man Action/Shooter Leaderboard Golf Sports Sega Lemmings Puzzle/Arcade Sunsoft Lemmings 2 Tribes Puzzle/Arcade Psygnosis Lethal Enforcers (5) Shooter Konami Lethal Enforcers II Shooter Konami LHX Attack Chopper Shooter/Flt Sim EA Liberty or Death Strategy Koei Light Crusader Adv.RPG Sega Lightening Force Shooter Lion King Shooter Virgin Lost Vikings Puzzle/Arcade Accolade Lotus Turbo Challenge Racing EA Lotus II Racing EA Madden Football see "John Madden Football" Magic School Bus Educational Sega Marble Madness Arcade Tengen Mario Andretti Racing Racing EA Sports Mario Lemieux Hockey Sports Sega Marko's Magic Soccer Platform Marsupilami Platform Sega Marvel Land Platform Renovation Master of Monsters RPG/Strategy Renovation Math Blaster Educational Davidson Maximum Carnage Platform/Fight Acclaim Mazin Saga Mutant Fighter Platform/Fight Vic Tokai McDonald's Treasure Land Adventure Platform Sega Mega Bomberman Arcade/Puzzle Hudson Soft Mega Turrican Platform/Shoot Mercs Shooter Sega Michael Jackson's Moonwalker Platform Sega Mickey Mania: Timeless Adventures Platform Sony Imagesoft Mickey Mouse: Castle of Illusion Platform Sega Mickey Mouse: World of Illusion Platform Sega Mickey's Ultimate Challenge Puzzle Hi-Tech Expr. Micro Machines Racing Codemasters Midnight Resistance Platform/Shootr Sega MIG-29 Fighter Pilot Shooter/Flt Sim Domark Might and Magic RPG EA Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Fighting Sega Mighty Morphin P.R.: The Movie Fighting Sega Mike Ditka Power Football Sports Ballistic/Accolade Minnesota Fats Pool Legend Sports Data East MLBPA Baseball Sports EA Sports Monopoly Board Game Parker Bros. Mortal Kombat Fighting Williams Mortal Kombat II Fighting Williams Mortal Kombat 3 Fighting Williams Ms. Pac Man Arcade/Maze Tengen Muhammad Ali Boxing Sports Sega MUSHA Shooter Seismic Mutant League Football Sports/Arcade EA Mutant League Hockey Sports/Arcade EA Mystic Defender Platform Sega Mystical Fighter NBA Action '94 Sports Sega Sports NBA Action '95 Sports Sega Sports NBA All Star Challenge Sports Flying Edge NBA Hang Time Sports Midway NBA Jam Sports Arena/Midway NBA Jam Tournament Edition Sports Acclaim NBA Live '95 Sports EA Sports NBA Live '96 Sports EA Sports NBA Live '97 Sports EA Sports NBA Live '98 Sports EA Sports NBA Showdown '94 Sports NCAA Final Four Basketball Sports NCAA Football Sports Sega Sports New Horizons (Uncharted Waters 2) Strategy Koei Newman Haas Indy Car Racing Racing NFL '95 Sports Sega Sports NFL '98 Sports Sega Sports NFL Quarterback Club Sports Acclaim NFL Quarterback Club '96 Sports Acclaim NHL '94 Sports EA Sports NHL '95 Sports EA Sports NHL '96 Sports EA Sports NHL '97 Sports EA Sports NHL '98 Sports EA Sports NHL All-Star Hockey 95 Sports Sega Sports NHL Hockey Sports Sega Sports NHLPA Hockey '93 Sports EA Nigel Mansell's World Championship Racing Gametek No Escape Platform/Strat Psygnosis Nobunaga's Ambition Strategy Koei Normy's Beach Babe-O-Rama Olympic Gold Sports Olympic Summer Games Sports T*HQ Onslaught Platform/Fight Ballistic/Accolade Ooze Adv/Shooter Sega Operation Europe Strategy Koei Out of This World Platform/Adv. Virgin Outlander Racing Outrun Racing Sega Outrun 2019 Racing Sega Outrunners Racing Data East P.T.O. Strategy Koei Pac Attack Puzzle Namco Pac Mania Arcade/Maze Tengen Pac Man 2: The New Adventures Platform Namco Pagemaster Platform Paperboy Arcade Tengen Paperboy 2 Arcade Tengen Pat Riley Basketball Sports Sega Pebble Beach Golf Links Sports Sega Pele! Sports Accolade Pele II Sports Accolade Pete Sampras Tennis (6) Sports Codemasters PGA European Tour Sports EA Sports PGA Tour '96 Sports EA Sports PGA Tour Golf Sports EA Sports PGA Tour Golf II Sports EA Sports PGA Tour Golf III Sports EA Sports Phantasy Star II (3) RPG Sega Phantasy Star III RPG Sega Phantasy Star IV RPG Sega Phantom 2040 Act/Platform Viacom Phelios Shooter Namco Pigskin Footbrawl (Jerry Glanville's) Sports Razor Soft Pink Goes to Hollywood Platform Pinocchio Platform T*HQ Pirates of Dark Water Platform Pirates! Gold Strategy/Adv Microprose Pit Fighter Fighting Tengen Pitfall - Mayan Adventure Platform Activision Pocahontas Platform Disney Int. Populous (1) Strategy EA Power Monger Strategy EA Powerball Arcade Namco Predator 2 Platform/Fight Primal Rage Fighting Time-Warner Int. Prime Time NFL Sports Sega Sports Prince of Persia Platform Tengen Pro Moves Soccer Sports Pro Quarterback Sports Puggsy Platform Punisher Platform/Fight Quackshot Platform Sega Quad Challenge Racing Namco Race Drivin' Racing Tengen Radical Rex Platform Activision Raiden Trad Shooter Bignet USA Rambo III Shooter/Action Sega Rampart Arcade/Puzzle Tengen Ranger X Platform/Shoot Sega Rastan Saga II Platform/Fight Taito RBI Baseball '93 Sports Tengen RBI Baseball '94 Sports Tengen RBI Baseball 3 Sports Tengen RBI Baseball 4 Sports Tengen Red Zone Shooter (1P) Ren & Stimpy: Stimpy's Invention Platform Sega Revenge of Shinobi Fighting/Platfm Sega Revolution X Shooter Acclaim Rings of Power RPG/Adventure EA Risk Board Game Parker Bros. Risky Woods Adventure EA Ristar Platform Sega Road Blasters Racing Tengen Road Rash Racing EA Road Rash 2 Racing EA Road Rash 3 Racing EA Robocop 3 Platform/fight Flying Edge Robocop vs. Terminator Platform Virgin Rock 'n' Roll Racing Racing Interplay Rocket Knight Adventures Platform/shoot Konami Roger Clemens MVP Baseball Sports Rolling Thunder 2 Platform/Fight Namco Rolling Thunder 3 Platform/Fight Namco Rolo to the Rescue Romance of 3 Kingdoms II Strategy Koei Romance of 3 Kingdoms III Strategy Koei Rugby World Cup '95 Sports EA Sports Sagaia Shooter Taito Saint Sword Platform/Adv. Taito Samurai Shodown Fighting Saturday Night Slam Masters Sports Scooby-Doo Mysteries Adventure/Str. Acclaim Seaquest DSV Shooter/Strat. Sesame Street Counting Cafe Educational EA Kids Shadow Blasters Platform/Adv Sage's Creation Shadow Dancer Platform/Fight Sega Shadow of the Beast Platform EA Shadow of the Beast II Platform EA Shadowrun Adventure Sega Shanghai II Puzzle Activision Shaq-Fu Fight/Adventure EA Shining Force Strategy RPG Sega Shining Force II Strategy RPG Sega Shining in the Darkness RPG Sega Shinobi III Fight/Platform Sega Shove It Puzzle Dreamworks Side Pocket Sports Data East Simpsons: Bart vs. Space Mutants Platform Flying Edge Simpsons: Bart's Nightmare Platform Acclaim Skeleton Krew Adventure Sega Skitchin' Racing EA Slaughter Sport Fighting Razorsoft Socket Platform Vic Tokai Sol Deace Shooter Renovation Soldier of Fortune Shooter/Platfm Spectrum Holobyte Sonic 3D Blast Platform Sega Sonic and Knuckles (10) Platform Sega Sonic Classics Platform Sega Sonic Spinball Pinball Sega Sonic the Hedgehog Platform Sega Sonic the Hedgehog 2 Platform Sega Sonic the Hedgehog 3 Platform Sega Sorcerers Kingdom RPG/Strategy Treco Space Harrier II Shooter Sega Space Invaders '91 Arcade shooter Taito Sparkster Platform Speedball 2 Sports/arcade Arena Ent. Spiderman (1993 - Sega) Platform/Fight Sega Spiderman (1995 - Acclaim) Platform/Fight Acclaim Spiderman/X-Men Platform/Fight Flying Edge Spiderman/Venom - Separation Anxiety Platform/Fight Acclaim Splatterhouse 2 Platform/Fight Namco Splatterhouse 3 Platform/Fight Namco Sports Talk Baseball Sports Sega Spot Goes to Hollywood Platform Acclaim Star Control Strategy Ballistic/Accolade Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Misc/plat/shoot Playmates Star Trek: The Next Generation Strategy/Adv. Sega Starflight Shooter/Strat. EA Stargate Acclaim Steel Empire Shooter Hot-B Steel Talons Shooter/Flt Sim Tengen Stormlord Platform Razorsoft Street Fighter II Championship Edition Fighting Capcom Street Smart Fighting Treco Streets of Rage Fight/Platform Sega Streets of Rage 2 Fight/Platform Sega Streets of Rage 3 Fight/Platform Sega Strider Platform/Fight US Gold Strider Returns Platform/Fight US Gold Sub Terrania Shooter/Platfm Sega Summer Challenge Sports Ballistic/Accolade Sunsetriders Platform/Shoot Konami Super Baseball 2020 Sports Super Battleship Strategy Super Battletank Strategy/Shoot Absolute Super Hang On Racing Sega Super High Impact Sports Super Hydlide RPG Seismic Super Monaco GP Racing Sega Super Monaco GP II Racing Sega Super Off Road Racing Accolade Super Smash T.V. Arcade/Shooter Flying Edge Super Street Fighter II Fighting Capcom Super Thunder Blade 1st P Shooter Sega Super Volleyball Sports Sega Super Wrestlemania Sports Superman Platform/Fight Sword of Sodan Platform EA Sword of Vermillion (3) RPG Sega Syd of Valis Platform Renovation Sylvester and Tweety Platform Time-Warner Int. Syndicate Strategy/Adv EA T2 - The Arcade Game T2 - Judgement Day Talespin Platform Sega Target Earth Shooter Dreamworks Task Force Harrier Shooter/Flt Treco Taz Mania Platform Sega Taz: Escape from Mars Platform Sega Team USA Basketball Sports EA Techno Cop Platform/Fight Virgin Technoclash Platform EA Tecmo Super Baseball Sports Tecmo Tecmo Super Bowl Sports Tecmo Tecmo Super Bowl II Sports Tecmo Tecmo Super Bowl III Sports Tecmo Tecmo Super Hockey Sports Tecmo Tecmo Super NBA Basketball Sports Tecmo Tecmo World Cup Sports Tecmo Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - SEE "TMNT" below Terminator Platform Virgin Test Drive II: The Duel Racing Accolade Theme Park Strategy EA Thomas the Tank Engine Educational Sega Thunder Force II Shooter Technosoft Thunder Force III Shooter Technosoft Thunder Fox Platform/Fight Taito Tick Platform/Fight Time Killers Fighting T*HQ Tinhead Platform Accolade Tiny Toons: Acme All-Stars Sports Konami Tiny Toons: Busters Treasure Platform Konami TMNT - The Hyperstone Heist Fighting/Platfm Konami TMNT - Tournament Fighters Fighting Konami TNN Bass Tournament Champ Sports TNN Outdoors Bass Tour '96 Sports American Softworks Todd's Adventures In Slime World Platform Renovation Toe Jam & Earl Platform Sega Toe Jam & Earl 2 - Panic on Funkotron Platform Sega Toki Platform Sega Tom & Jerry: Frantic Antics! Platform Hi-Tech Expr. Tommy Lasorda Baseball Sports Sega Tony La Russa Baseball Sports EA Sports Tony La Russa Baseball '95 Sports EA Sports Top Gear 2 Racing Vic Tokai Toughman Contest Fighting EA Sports Toxic Crusaders Platform Sega Toy Story Platform Disney Int. Toys Platform Trampoline Terror Puzzle Dreamworks Traysia RPG Renovation Triple Play '96 Sports EA Sports Triple Play Gold Edition Sports EA Sports Triple Score Multi Sega Trouble Shooter Shooter Vic Tokai Troy Aikman Football Sports Tradewest True Lies Platform/Fight Truxton Shooter Sega Turrican (1) Shooter/Platfm Accolade Twin Cobra Shooter Treco Two Crude Dudes Platform/Fight Data East Tyrants Strategy Ultimate Mortal Kombat Fighting Williams Ultimate Qix Puzzle/Arcade Taito Uncharted Waters Strategy Koei Universal Soldier Platform/Fight Accolade Unnecessary Roughness '95 Sports Accolade Urban Strike Shooter/Str. EA Valis Platform/Shoot Renovation Valis III Platform/Shoot Renovation Vapor Trail Shooter Renovation Vectorman Platform Sega Vectorman 2 Platform Sega View Point Shooter American Sammy Virtua Fighter 2 Fighting Sega Virtua Racing (4) Racing Sega Sports Virtual Pinball Pinball EA VR Troopers Fighting Sega Wacky Worlds (11) Education Sega Wardner Platform Mentrix Warlock Fighting Namco Warpspeed Shooter/strat Accolade Warrior of Rome Strategy Bignet USA Warrior of Rome 2 Strategy Bignet USA Warsong Strategy Treco Wayne Gretzky/NHLPA Sports Wayne's World Platform T*HQ Weaponlord Fighting/Platfm Namco Whac-a-Critter (2) Arcade Realtec Wheel of Fortune Quiz Gametek Where in the World is Carmen San Diego (7) Education Where in Time is Carmen San Diego? (8) Education Whip Rush Shooter Renovation Wimbledon Tennis Sports Sega Sports Wings of Wor Shooter Dreamworks Winter Challenge Sports Ballistic/Accolade Winter Olympic Games Sports US Gold Wiz 'n' Liz Wolfchild Platform JVC Wolverine: Adamantium Rage Platform Acclaim Wonder Boy in Monster World Platform/Adv Sega World Championship Soccer Sports Sega World Championship Soccer II Sports Sega World Cup USA '94 Sports World Heroes Fighting Sega World Series Baseball Sports Sega Sports World Series Baseball '95 Sports Sega Sports World Series Baseball '96 Sports Sega Sports World Series Baseball '98 Sports Sega Sports World Trophy Soccer Sports Virgin Wrestlemania: The Arcade Game Sports Acclaim WWF Raw Sports WWF Royal Rumble Sports Flying Edge X-Men Platform/Fight Sega X-Men 2: Clone Wars Platform/Fight Sega X-Perts Platform Sega Ys III Action/RPG Renovation Young Indiana Jones/Instruments of Chaos Action/Platfm Sega Zany Golf (1) Sports EA Zero the Kamikaze Squirrel Platform Sunsoft Zero Tolerance 1st Psn shooter Accolade Zombies Ate My Neighbors Action Konami Zool Platform Gametek Zoom Puzzle Sega Zoop Puzzle Viacom Notes: (1) Works only on original Genesis (very first release of Genesis 1 that contained "Altered Beast" as a pack-in) or on other Genesis units with a Game Genie. (2) Unlicensed release. (3) Packaged with a separate hint/solution guide from Sega. (4) Does not work with the Sega 32X attached. (5) Packaged with Konami's "Justifier" light pistol. (6) Cartridge contains two joypad ports to allow up to four players. (7) Packaged with 1992 World Almanac. (8) Packaged with New American Desk Encyclopedia. (9) Game had different publisher upon re-release. Earliest publisher is listed first. (10) Cartridge has port on top to allow "lock-on" of another cartridge (works with Sonic 2 and Sonic 3). (11) This kids' program was packaged with a mouse in a slightly thicker (cardboard) box. Miscellaneous: Q: What games are not compatible with any version of the Genesis? A: The only games that are not compatible with ANY model Genesis are some of the early releases from Electronic Arts: Budokan, Ishido, Zany Golf. These are *only* compatible* with the earliest model Genesis; since they were not "licensed" titles, Sega modified the internal circuitry to make these titles (but no others) incompatible with later releases of the machine. Q: Which games are NOT compatible with the Nomad? A: The following is a Usenet post from Sega employee Lisa Wilson in an attempt To address the subject: From: Lisa Best Wilson <email@example.com> Newsgroups: rec.games.video.sega Subject: Nomad Incompatibility List (from SEGA) Date: 19 Oct 1995 17:02:48 GMT Organization: Sega of America I've learned that it's difficult to get through on our Consumer Services 800 number, so I'm posting the current list of Genesis games that we have found to have problems on Nomad. This is the "official" list as of now. The test process is ongoing and we will update the list if we discover other problems. Please bear in mind that there are over 500 Genesis games and in order to test them properly, they need to be played numerous times and played through more than just the first level. This process takes a very long time. If anyone has problems with a game that isn't on this list, please contact me and I will have your problem verified through the test cycle. The following games have been found to NOT work on Nomad due to serious freezing glitches or unusual button configurations (making it too difficult to play): DecapAttack Forgotten Worlds Bonkers Golden Axe 2 The following games have been found to freeze periodically or need multiple attempts to power up, but continue to work after resetting: Chakan Pit Fighter Shadow Run Sonic 1 Streets of Rage 1 In addition, Outback Joey -- a game designed for an exercise bike hookup -- does not work on Nomad. Thanks for your continued support. Lisa Best Wilson Product Manager Sega of America Q: Which games come in both cardboard box and plastic case? A: Those which were released early (i.e. before Sega's decision sometime in 1995 to use ALL cardboard boxes instead of those WONDERFUL plastic cases we've been spoiled with) and re-released later. No idea if these are rarer than the plastic case releases, but in most/all cases the docs and cart appear identical to the original releases. Titles include: Sega: Ariel - The Little Mermaid Jurassic Park Mickey Mouse: World of Illusion Sonic the Hedgehog 3 Super Monaco GP Taz: Escape from Mars X-Men 2: Clone Wars (many more) Parker Bros (re-released by Ballistic/Accolade): Clue Monopoly Risk Tengen Ms. Pacman Paperboy Paperboy 2 Steel Talons Electronic Arts Desert Strike Jungle Strike Mario Andretti Racing Urban Strike Misc: Caesar's Palace Jeopardy! Wheel of Fortune Q: What are the "blue label games"? "Kids Club" games? A: All these were releases intended for children. "Blue label" refers to the BLUE *Genesis* name stripe on the left (which is normally red). Blue stripe titles include: Berenstain Bears Barney's Hide & Seek Thomas the Tank Engine Kids' Club titles include: Crystal's Pony Tale Ecco Jr. Magic School Bus Sesame Street Counting Cafe Wacky Worlds Q: Which games are compatible with the Sega Mouse? A: Partial list here: Art Alive Wacky Worlds (packaged with Mouse) Q: Which games are compatible with the Konami justifier light gun? A: Lethal Enforcers (packaged with Justifier in large box) Lethal Enforcers II Q: Which games behave differently when the language switch (Section 2.5) is installed, and switched to Japanese? A: Here is a partial list: * After Burner (32X): has "Super 32X" logo after the Sega logo. * Battle Mania II: works normally, but without joysticks it gives you a screen telling your language mode, NTSC/PAL, and system version. * Bonanza Brothers: Game plays in Japanese. (Maybe. There seems to be more than one version floating around.) * Chase HQ II: speedometer changes to KM/H. * Columns: Game plays in Japanese. * Cosmic Carnage (32X): Turns into "Cyber Brawl", with different characters. Also shows the Super 32X logo. (Pressing and holding X, B, and Z when you turn the machine on lets you get Cyber Brawl on a regular Genesis.) * Cyberball: Japanese version has a modem option. * Dragon's Fury: Works only with language set to English. The original, Devil's Crush MD, works either way. * Dynamite Duke: Harder on the Mega Drive. * Elemental Master: Harder on the Mega Drive. * Fatal Labyrinth: Game plays in Japanese. * Fire Shark: Different title screen with Kanji. * Flicky: Characters have Japanese names and instructions are in Japanese. * Forgotten Worlds: Game plays in Japanese. * Gaiares: only mentions the Japanese licensee on the title screen, and has Japanese text; you can also select Japanese text from the option screen. * Gain Ground: "Press start" is "Push start" in the Japanese version, and the mention of Renovation is removed. * Gauntlet IV: The game has lockout, but you can flick the switch and then reset. The Japanese version has Japanese text (sound stays English), says "Megadrive", and has a Gauntlet (not Gauntlet IV) logo on the game screen. If you reset too late, you have to select the text language manually. * Ghostbusters: Game plays in Japanese. * Ghouls and Ghosts: Different title screen with Kanji. To see it on a Genesis, select the last music and sound (26 and 56) from the options screen, then press lower left; A, B, or C; and Start all at the same time. (I never tried this, but Gamepro magazine claimed it works.) The game shows some other Japanese text, and when you die during a boss you start out earlier. * Herzog Zwei: company's name is spelled "Tecnosoft". * Insector X: Title screen refers to company as Hot-B, not Sage's Creation. The MD version shoots more slowly. The ending text is still English. * Marvel Land: The Japanese version says "for Mega Drive" or "for Genesis" but the language stays Japanese. Also, the Japanese version says "Push Start" and the English "Press Start". * Metal Head (32X): has a different, colored, Sega logo and a different Sega sound, Japanese text (also available in US mode from the options screen), and an "anime" option as well as "photo" and "picture". * Monaco GP: Game plays in Japanese (also an option on the option screen). * Mystic Defender: This game is actually the anime-based Kujaku-Ou (Peacock King) 2 game. In Japanese mode, the opening text is replaced by a graphics screen (never seen in the US version) with Japanese. The levels have names, the main character wears a white robe, the lightning magic effect is different, and the character is named Kujaku in the ending text (which is still English). * Outrun: The attract mode lacks sound, the startup screen says "push" (not "press") start button, and "(C) Sega 1986, 1991" is printed in reverse order. The default options are KM/H and a different button selection (but can still be changed on the option screen). * Quackshot: Game plays in Japanese. * Raiden Trad: The "licensed to Sega" line is absent on both title screens, and the second title screen includes only the Japanese part instead of the non-Japanese part of the first one. * Rambo III: Game plays in Japanese. * Revenge of Shinobi: Title changes to Super Shinobi; credits show at the end. * Rolling Thunder II: The Japanese version only works on a Japanese setting. The US version works either way (and isn't bilingual). * Sonic the Hedgehog II: Tails is renamed to "Miles". * Space Harrier (32X): has "Super 32X" logo after the Sega logo. * Streets of Rage: Title screen changes to Bare Knuckle, and all text is in Japanese, including the introduction. The clock resets when you encounter the bosses. * Streets of Rage II: Turns to Bare Knuckle II, and renames Skate to Sammy -- _if_ you change the setting sometime after turning the machine on (to skip the lockout). * Super Fantasy Zone: opening cinema changes from English/Japanese. * Super Hang-On: Plays in Japanese, which is also accessible with A+B+C on the logo screen. * Thunder Force II: Title screen has "MD" on it, and company name is "Tecnosoft". * Thunder Force III: company's name is spelled "Tecnosoft". * Thunder Force IV: claims to be licensed for Genesis, if you change the switch after the lockout check. * Thunder Storm FX (CD): Turns to Cobra Command in US mode. * Truxton: Japanese title is Tatsujin. * Twin Hawk: Different title screen with Kanji. * Wrestle War: The wrestler is blond on a Genesis and black-haired on a MegaDrive. ************************** *Section 4 - Peripherals * ************************** The Genesis had quite a long lifespan; from its release in the US in 1989 until now, many peripherals were developed and sold for use with the Sega Genesis. Two system add-on "upgrades" were developed by Sega to enhance the gameplaying experience for Genesis owners: * Sega CD - allows Genesis owners to use the Sega CD library (see Sega CD FAQ for more info). * Sega 32X - 32-bit "upgrade" for Genesis owners, plugs into cart slot and requires some rerouting of A/V cables. See Sega 32X FAQ. Various other devices were developed by Sega and other companies. Note: JOYPADS are not listed here since there were so many varieties from many companies. Activator - Karate/fighting game aid. Large ring of motion sensors that determine one's moves and translate them to actions in games. Batter Up! - Batting simulator. Actual baseball bat with sensors to determine swing vector and simulates it in certain baseball games. Game Genie - Cheat device. This is an elongated cartridge that plugs into the Genesis cart slot and accepts carts on its upper end. When activated, the user can supply codes (there is a book supplied with the Genie that lists thousands of codes for many different games) that allow various cheats during the game. Examples - infinite lives, invincibility, infinite ammo, level skips, etc. From GALOOB. Master Deck - Backward compatibility device. This black unit plugs directly onto the top of a Model I Genesis; it fits snugly over the circular portion. It lets you play Sega Master System (Sega's 8-bit game machine that was released in 1986) titles on your Genesis. Does not fit on top any Genesis other than a Model I Genesis. From SEGA. Menacer - Light Gun. More like a "light bazooka", the user puts it on his/her shoulder and uses the sight to aim. Came packaged with either a 6-in-1 multicart of simple shooter games or Terminator 2. Uses an infrared receiver which is best positioned above the TV/monitor, and plugs into the controller port. (Similar to the Superscope for the SNES) From SEGA. Pro Action Replay - Cheat device. The Pro Action Replay is different from the Game Genie because it allows you to save a game "state". This lets you go back and play a certain part of a game as many times as you need to in order to beat that particular section. It also accepts codes like the Genie does (although the PAR codes are not compatible with Genie codes). From DATEL (UK). Sega Channel - Cable-TV pay service. This was a service offered by some cable companies and allowed subscribers to download games and demos to their Genesis. The service was discontinued in early 1998 as the Genesis' popularity waned. (I do not have any info on the peripheral device used to connect the Genesis to the cable system) Tee Vee Golf - Golf swing simulator. Contains golf club and sensors to determine swing vector and simulates it in certain golf games. X-Band Modem - Game modem. This modem plugs into the cartridge slot and has a phone out jack. The X-Band modem is controlled by the Genesis and the user (via the joypad) and allows the user to compete against other users connected to the "X-Band Network". The X-Band Network is/was a subscription-based service. The user had to own the game cartridge before being able to compete with another X-Band user (who also had to have the same game cartridge). ************************** * Section 5 - Emulators * ************************** This section covers emulators developed for the Macintosh and IBM-PC computers. If you're a novice to emulation, read this section. (If not, skip down the the list below) It is possible to play Genesis games on your PC or Mac! You can, if you have a few things: (1) a FAST enough machine, (2) the emulation software, and (3) the game ROM images. A Sega Genesis emulator is essentially a program that runs on top of your operating system and plays - as an application - Sega Genesis cartridge-based games. No, you do not actually *connect* your cartridge to your computer and play it like that; you must first find the game ROM image files and select the game you want to play from *within* the emulator program. A typical game system emulator works like this. You open the application by, perhaps, double-clicking it. Then a browse screen will appear, prompting you for a game file. You can then navigate to the game file, select it - thus loading it into the emulator. The emulator window is then a 100% perfect replica of your game, with controls passed onto the keyboard (key translation depends entirely on the emulator, there is no standard). You can then play the game until you are tired of it (or beat it!) and then select a new one in the same window. Emulators are generally written by (very talented) hobbyists rather than big companies. The authors put a lot of hard work into them, and when you are running a game of "Gunstar Heroes" in one window while waiting for a VAX job to finish in another one, you really appreciate their effort. In order to emulate a different hardware system, the program has to start from the ground floor. Typically, the main chipset is emulated first. This ensures that the basic instructions at the most *basic* level of the hardware are performed correctly. Gradually, pieces of the hardware's operating system and other system chips (graphics, sound, etc.) are added in the code to provide a more complete emulation. Eventually, the entire machine has been emulated - from the CPU to the operating system. Now all you need are the game ROM files. Q: What are game ROM files? A: These are the actual cartridge programs. The code from a game cartridge can be downloaded to a computer file if you have the equipment (see next question). Once you have the game code transferred to a computer file, it is ready to run with the emulator software (unless the file needs to be formatted in any particular way to run with a certain emulator). Q: How can I transfer my cartridge library to computer files? A: One way to do this is to use a cartridge copier (this isn't exactly a legal item here, so I can't exactly *endorse* it. This is a device - typically - that has a cartridge slot and a disk drive. The machine reads the data from the cartridge and stores it in a file on the disk. These are *supposed* to be used to backup one's games, but obviously were also used for software piracy. Cartridge copiers are not legal in the U.S. and are produced in Asia (Hong Kong and Taiwan, primarily). Q: Where can I get game ROM files? A: Not from me! PLEASE don't ask me for them, I do not keep ROM files and this is a touchy legal subject. If you want game ROM images, search the Web for them with "ROMs" or "game ROMs" or "ROM images" (along these lines, probably anything with "ROM" in it will turn up some sites). I do not want to list websites in the FAQ since (a) they tend to change very frequently, and (b) I do not want to choose favorites. There are many, many sites out on the Net and a little searching will turn up quite a few results. Q: Where can I get the emulator programs? A: They are found all over the web. Try a search on "Genesis emulator" and several sites will pop up. There are numerous available. For the Macintosh, essentially ALL emulators can be found at http://www.emulation.net Q: How fast does my computer have to be in order to run an emulator? A: That depends on two things: (1) the emulator software (some emulators are optimized better than others and do not require as much muscle from the CPU), and (2) how your computer is configured. Emulators have to do a LOT of work - a tremendous amount of number-crunching and graphics output. In order for your computer to run it best, I would recommend eliminating an background processes that may slow it down. In other words, let the emulator hog up all the processing power of your computer. If you have a PC, running the emulator from DOS is better than running it from Windows due to the overhead that Windows demands (graphic processing can eat it up). If you have a Mac, try turning off as many extensions as possible (perhaps create a new stripped-down set with Extensions Manager to run specifically for your emulator). There are many ways to improve the performance. As to how much speed you'll need, that is difficult to determine - but at this point, a Power Macintosh or Pentium-based PC would almost certainly be required. Note also that many emulators are still in various stages of development. If you download a version Emulator List There are several Sega Genesis emulators for the Mac and IBM-PC computers. I have not personally tested them all and cannot vouch for each one, your best bet is to try them all (for your system) and choose the one that works best on your system. For the Apple Macintosh Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx There are a few emulators out there for the Mac. More in the next version of the FAQ, but here's one: GenEm - still in early stage. No sound support but runs clean video. Author: Brian Verre (http://www.execpc.com/~wverre) For the IBM-PC There are a few emulators for the PC, more in the next version. Here's one: GenEm - Not sure about status (http://myst.slcc.edu/~markus) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx **************************** *Section 6 - Miscellaneous * **************************** *** Cleaning your Genesis/Megadrive cartridges It is important that you keep your cartridge contacts as clean as possible. Signs that you are playing a game with dirty contacts include a failure to start up, saved games being erased, and a cartridge "crash" in the middle of a game. Very simple - a Q-Tip and some isopropyl alcohol ("rubbing alcohol"). Dip a Q-tip into the alcohol. It is not necessary to saturate the swab, but get at least enough to wet it. Then, rub one side of the cartridge contact strip with the wet swab. You will notice black appear on the swab; these are the oxidation compounds that occur naturally between any sort of electrical contacts, and eventually build up and reduce the conductivity (sometimes eliminating it altogether). It is a good idea to use one end of a swab for each side of the contact strip. This way, you don't re-contaminate a potentially clean part of the strip with oxidation from the other side. Most of the oxidation appears at the very *tip* of the contact strip, so be sure to clean the edge very thoroughly. Allow the cartridge to dry before plugging it back into the deck. Note: I have occasionally read in one of the Usenet newsgroups that some users disagree completely with this method. The objection seems to be from using 100% isopropyl alcohol. (Claim is that it does not react well with circuit board resin and would only worsen your cartridge condition) I have cleaned several hundred cartridges for many systems with rubbing alcohol, including Genesis cartridges, and not once have I had a problem with it. *** Cleaning your Sega Genesis/Megadrive deck To clean the contact card connector inside your Genesis/Megadrive unit, you will have to have a cartridge cleaning kit. These kits typically contain a card that fits inside the Genesis cart slot, to clean the inner surfaces of the contact pins. There are two basic varieties of these cleaning kits - wet and dry. The wet kit uses such a card - usually with some sort of mildly abrasive end - and a bottle of isopropyl alcohol/water solution. Put a few drops of the solution on the card edge and put into the cart slot. Repeat several times to clean the entire row of connector pins. The dry version of this uses a similar cleaning card, but usually in the dry version the cleaning card end is made of a mildly abrasive material that is able to clean the pins by scraping the oxidation off. *** Opening up a Genesis cartridge This is not something I would recommend you do if possible. There aren't too may reasons to open up a Genesis cartridge, but they include: - replacing an old battery for gamesave feature - to remove a piece of debris inside the cart to stop it from "rattling" - to inspect the circuit board of a cartridge to look for loose connections and repair if necessary - general curiosity If you have tried to open a Genesis/MD cartridge with normal tools, you have probably discovered that they will not do it for you. That's because Sega used a different type of screw head in the cart manufacture. You will have to obtain a special "security bit" for Sega games; this bit can fit on a driver (like a screwdriver but with a connector-type end to attach bits such as this one) and changed as much as you want. The bit can be bought from MCM Electronics for about $8, the driver is about $5. *** Sources for more Sega Genesis/Megadrive information The best place for ANY information these days is the Internet. There are many sites on the Internet that contain Sega Genesis-related information, but are too numerous to list here. Also, due to the transient nature of many personal websites (here today, gone tomorrow) I prefer NOT to list them since it is not uncommon for a site to disappear forever. Simply do a web search to find them. Try one of the following search Engines: http://www.altavista.digital.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.hotbot.com Put "Sega Genesis" as the keyword(s) and many sites will appear. Not all Contain useful information, but if you do a little work it should pay off. If you are looking for cheats, walkthroughs, or game/system FAQs, there are three wonderful sources for this information: http://www.segasages.com (incredible cheats library) http://www.gamefaqs.com (system/game faqs and walkthroughs) http://www.miningco.com (even more info on many game systems) There are also two Usenet newsgroups where you can look for Genesis/Megadrive information: alt.sega.genesis rec.games.video.sega (recommended) Many, many books were released on the Sega Genesis and games for the system. I cannot list them in this version of the FAQ but will as soon as I cull more information on them. Q: Where can I buy games for my Genesis/Megadrive system? A: There are still a few places that - as of this writing - still sell games for the Sega Genesis. (I cannot speak for Europe and Japan, but would always recommend Toys R Us anywhere as a starting point) Most of the games available are recent releases or re-issues, and most software stores still sell them, although a typical selection might only be about 20 titles. Some Wal-Mart stores still carry a selection of Genesis games - although it's probably reduced and only the re-issues (Jeopardy!, Little Mermaid, Clue, Lion King, etc.). Toys R Us stores tend to have the best selection, drawing from a huge inventory with some stores still offering titles from 1994-5. Your best bet, if you are looking for an older Genesis title, is to check out rec.games.video.marketplace and see if anyone is selling or auctioning it there. There are also many store websites that sell used Genesis games, your best bet to find these is to do a websearch (Yahoo, Altavista, Hotbot, etc.) on the words "Genesis games for sale" or some variant. The search engine always turns something useful up. Q: Can I still rent Sega Genesis video games? A: Probably. As of this writing, many Blockbuster stores still rent them, but your best bet is often with the "mom & pop" video stores that are slow to convert to the latest system(s). Rental places are also a great place to buy the games, used, when they are finished renting them.