Subject: Atari 8-Bit Computers: Frequently Asked Questions

This article was archived around: 24 Dec 2005 06:02:19 GMT

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Welcome to the comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup!


                           Atari 8-Bit Computers

                      Frequently Asked Questions List
    ___________                                             _______________
   | ///////// |               _____________               |  |||||||||||  |
   |___________|              |             |              |  ||_______||  |
   |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | / _________ \ |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
   |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]_____|
       130XE                       800XL                          800
    ___________                                             __---------__   
   | ///////// |                                           | /  _____  \ |
   |___________|               _____________               | / |_____| \ |
   |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | ___________ |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
   |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]___|
        65XE                       600XL                         400
    ___________                                             _____________
   | ///////// |         ___________                       |             |
   |___________|        |/// /      |                      |             |
   |______/////|        |// /       |  /\___________       |=============|  
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |/O\        |\/ |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL | 
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |-----------|   |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL |  
   |__[_____]__|        |____O_O_O_O|   |__[_____]__|      |___[_____]___|
 
       800XE                   XE Game System                   1200XL
             
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                       mailto:hunmanik@earthlink.net

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UPDATES SINCE PREVIOUS POSTING
2005.12.18 7.4 Atari DOS 1/I, 2/II typography re-standardized
2005.12.17 11.2 8-bits discontinued in Canada, from AtariUser
2005.11.27 8.1 updated to revision 2.0, 2005-2-20 from Freddy Offenga
2005.11.27 7.1 updated to Version 3.4, 2005-11-26 from Freddy Offenga
2005.11.27 6.8 The Entertainer variations, thanks Bill Demian
2005.11.16 1.11 added custom IC part numbers from Best Electronics catalog
2005.11.14 1.11 added link to http://www.retromicro.com/, thanks Kryten
2005.11.08 2.1 More Than Games link updated
2005.10.28 1.11 datasheets & schematics missing from revised atarimuseum.com
2005.10.15 11.2 1.2 1.3 3.4 800/810/400 production ended May 1983
2005.09.09 3.9 added SIO2Linux, by Preston Crow
2005.09.05 1.7,1.12 some NTSC 65XE's include the ECI port, thanks Kevin
2005.08.26 11.2 JAKKS Pacific and Atari Flashback annoucements added
2005.08.15 11.2 1983 1200XL, 800 retail prices

------------------------------

Subject: 0.1) Table of contents

 0.1) Table of contents

     The Computers
 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?
 1.2) What is the Atari 400?
 1.3) What is the Atari 800?
 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL?
 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL?
 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL?
 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE?
 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE?
 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE?
 1.10) What is the Atari XE Game System?
 1.11) What are the 6502, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE chips?
 1.12) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?
 1.13) What issues surround NTSC vs PAL versions of the 8-bit Atari?
 1.14) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari?

     Video Display
 2.1) What video display devices can I use with my Atari?

     Mass Storage
 3.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, and XC12 Program Recorders?
 3.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari?
 3.3) How do I run a program from cassette?
 3.4) What are the Atari 810, 815, 1050, and XF551 Disk Drives?
 3.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari?
 3.6) What kinds of 5.25" floppy disks can I use with my Atari drives?
 3.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks?
 3.8) What hard drives were designed for my Atari?
 3.9) How can my Atari utilize my PC's storage drives?

     Printers 
 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers?
 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers?
 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers?
 4.4) What other printers can I use with my Atari?
 4.5) How can my Atari utilize my PC's printer?
 
     MODEMs and networking hardware
 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems?
 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari?
 5.3) How can I my Atari utilize my PC's modem/network?
 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari?
 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network?

     Hardware interfaces
 6.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module?
 6.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?
 6.3) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari?
 6.4) How can I use an IDE device with my Atari?
 6.5) Can I attach an ISA card to my Atari?
 6.6) How can I use a USB device with my Atari?

     More hardware
 6.7) What are the power requirements for my Atari components?
 6.8) What accessories did Atari produce for their 8-bit computers?
 6.9) What preventative maintenance can I do on my Atari system?
 6.10) What graphic tablets were produced for the Atari?
 6.11) What lightpens were produced for the Atari?
 6.12) What lightguns were produced for the Atari?
 6.13) What paddles were produced for the Atari?  
 6.14) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the Atari?
 6.15) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari?
 6.16) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari?
 6.17) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari?
 6.18) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari?
 6.19) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?

     Core software: OS, BASIC, DOS, Modem handlers
 7.1) What versions of the Atari Operating System (OS) are there?
 7.2) What is the ATASCII character set?
 7.3) What is Atari BASIC?
 7.4) What are Atari DOS I, DOS II, DOS 3, DOS 2.5, and DOS XE?
 7.5) What are MyDOS, SpartaDOS, and other popular DOS versions?
 7.6) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives?
 7.7) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari?
 7.8) What should I know about modem device handlers?

     Software
 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari?
 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800?
 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players?
 8.4) What programs run only on the 400 and 800 models, and why?
 8.5) What programs make use of the Light Gun or a light pen?
 8.6) What programs have a track ball mode or support a mouse?
 8.7) What programs have a paddle(s) or Koala Pad mode?
 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode?
 8.9) What programs have a Touch tablet mode?
 8.10) What kinds of extra RAM and RAMdisks can be installed?
 8.11) What programs support more than 64K RAM?
 8.12) What programs require more than 64K RAM?
 8.13) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari?
 8.14) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound?
 8.15) What games support online action via modem?
 8.16) What programs support Atari computer networking?
 
     Working with Atari files: Compression, File formats, Copying
 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari?
 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there?
 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software?

     Interoperating with "modern" computers
 10.1) What programs can log in to other computers via modem?
 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari?
 10.3) How can I read/write Atari disks on an MS-DOS PC?
 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari?
 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?
 10.6) How can my PC utilize my Atari disk drive?
 10.7) What about interoperating with the Apple Macintosh?
 10.8) Are there 8-bit Atari tools for the Commodore Amiga? 

     Timeline
 11.1) How did Atari get its name? 
 11.2) What is the history of Atari?
      
------------------------------

Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?

Based in Silicon Valley in the U.S.A., the company known as Atari produced
a line of home computers from 1979 to 1992 often referred to collectively as
the "Atari 8-bits," the "8-bit Ataris," the "400/800/XL/XE series," etc.

The computers included the 400, 800, 1200XL, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE,
and the XE Game System.

These machines competed in the marketplace most directly with the likes of the
Commodore 64 series, the Apple II series, the Texas Instruments TI99/4A, and
the Radio Shack Color Computer, among others.  Of these, the 8-bit Atari is
most similar to the Commodore 64.

In marketing their computers to the public, Atari always had to contend with
their company history and reputation as a maker of video games.  While the
8-bit Atari computers in their heyday were technically quite comparable if not
superior in the worlds of home and business personal computing, they also live
up to the name "Atari" with a huge library of video games which were often
outstanding for their time.

The 8-bit Atari computers do not use the same cartridges or floppy disks as
any other Atari platforms, such as the 2600 Video Computer System (VCS), the
5200 SuperSystem, the 7800 ProSystem, or the ST/TT/Falcon computers.  All of
these but the 5200, however, do share the same joystick/controller hardware
port.

The 5200 SuperSystem is actually nearly identical to the 8-bit computers
internally, yet cartridges for the 5200 and the 8-bit computers cannot be
exchanged, primarly due to the physically different cartridge ports.

Here are some of the performance specifications of the 8-bit Atari computers:

(Some of the rest of this section by Bill Kendrick)

CPU: 6502 (MOS Technology)

CPU CLOCK SPEED:
  NTSC machines:     1.7897725 MHz
  non-NTSC machines: 1.773447 MHz

SCREEN REFRESH RATE:
      59.94 times per second (Hz) on NTSC Ataris
      49.86 Hz on PAL machines

GRAPHICS MODES:
ANTIC     CIO/BASIC     Display     Resolution        Number of
Mode #    Graphics #    Type        (full screen)     Colors
---------------------------------------------------------------
  2          0          Char         40 x 24            1 *
  3          -          Char         40 x 19            1 *
  4         12 ++       Char         40 x 24            5
  5         13 ++       Char         40 x 12            5
  6          1          Char         20 x 24            5
  7          2          Char         20 x 12            5
  8          3          Map          40 x 24            4
  9          4          Map          80 x 48            2
  A          5          Map          80 x 48            4
  B          6          Map         160 x 96            2
  C         14 ++       Map         160 x 192           2
  D          7          Map         160 x 96            4
  E         15 ++       Map         160 x 192           4
  F          8          Map         320 x 192           1 *
  F          9 +        Map          80 x 192           1 **
  F         10 +        Map          80 x 192           9
  F         11 +        Map          80 x 192           16 ***
  * 1 Hue; 2 Luminances
 ** 1 Hue; 16 Luminances
*** 16 Hues; 1 Luminance
  + require the GTIA chip.  1979-1981 400/800's shipped with CTIA
 ++ Not available via the BASIC GRAPHICS command in 400/800's.

GRAPHICS INDIRECTION (COLOR REGISTERS AND CHARACTER SETS):
Nine color registers are available.  Each color register holds any of 16
luminances x 16 hues = 256 colors.  (Four registers are for player-missile
graphics.

Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an inverse
video incarnation, are totally redefinable.

PLAYER-MISSILE GRAPHICS:  (byte height and OR corrections from Piotr Fusik)
    Four 8-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color players, and four
    2-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color missiles are available.
    A mode to combine the 4 missiles into a 5th 8-bit wide player is also
    available, as is a mode to OR colors or blacken out colors when players
    overlap (good for making three colors out of two players!)  Players
    and missiles have adjustable priority and collision detection.

DISPLAY LIST INTERRUPTS (DLI's):
    Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the Display
    List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every
    screen refresh:

    All other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal position,
    screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.) can be ajusted
    at any point down the screen via DLI's.

SCROLLING:
    Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on any
    line on the screen.

SOUND:
    Four voices of 8-bit pitch-resolution, 4-bit volume-resolution,
    8-distortion sound can be produced.  2 voices (1 and 2, and/or 3 and 4)
    can be combined to make 16-bit pitch-resolution.  Also 4-bit volume-only
    modes can be enabled for digitally sampled sound replay.

    A fifth "voice" is produced by the internal speaker on Atari 400/800's
    (for keyclick and buzzer) and in the XL's and XE's this was
    (fortunately!) rerouted through the normal audio output, and the
    keyclick can be disabled.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.2) What is the Atari 400?

Released along with the 800 in 1979, the 400 was the low-end model of the two.
The only 8-bit Atari with a membrane keyboard rather than a full-stroke
keyboard.  One of the few 8-bit Ataris lacking a composite monitor port.
Originally released with just 8K RAM, but most were sold with 16K RAM.  Atari
sold the Atari 400 48K RAM Expansion Kit, which required a little soldering,
to dealers only.

Only the 400 and 800 8-bit Atari models have four controller (joystick) ports.

Early 400 units include the CTIA chip; later units include the GTIA chip, also
present in all later 8-bit Ataris.

Atari marketing used the trademark, The Basic Computer, as an alternative name
for the 400 in 1982.

Production of the 400 ended in May 1983.

During development the 400 was known internally as "Candy."

------------------------------

Subject: 1.3) What is the Atari 800?

Released along with the 400 in 1979, the 800 was the high-end model of the
two.  The 800 is the only 8-bit Atari with a Right Cartridge slot, in addition
to the Left Cartridge slot as present on all 8-bit Ataris.  Originally
released with just 8K RAM, many were sold with 16K, later on 48K was standard.

The 800 is also the only 8-bit Atari with a four-slot modular design, where
the first slot holds the CX801 (CX801-P for PAL machines) 10K ROM module, and
the other three slots hold combinations of CX852 8K or CX853 16K RAM modules.

Jason Harmon writes: (12 Feb 2004)
"..the early ones had plastic cases on the ROM and RAM modules, and had two
thumb tabs to remove the cover to access the modules.  Later model 800s had
48K standard, and to improve cooling Atari installed them without the cases
but put a small plastic strip across the tops of the cards to hold them in
position.  These machines also lost the thumb tabs and have regular screws to
secure the cover over the memory slots."

Only the 400 and 800 8-bit Atari models have four controller (joystick) ports.

Early 800 units include the CTIA chip; later units include the GTIA chip, also
present in all later 8-bit Ataris.

Production of the 800 ended in May 1983.

During development the 800 was known internally as "Coleen."

------------------------------

Subject: 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL?

Introduced as a big brother to the 400/800 in 1983, the 1200XL now uses
Atari's slightly customized 6502C microprocessor, and includes a full 64K RAM.
The 1200XL was the first 8-bit Atari with just 2 controller ports.  In
addition, the 1200XL includes 4 programmable Function keys and a Help key, 4
LEDs, built-in diagnostic and graphics demonstration programs, and probably
the favorite keyboard of any 8-bit Atari computer.  Clicks previously output
through the built-in speaker are now heard from the television or monitor's
speaker.  The revised 16K Operating System offers many new features, including
an alternate International Character Set.

The 1200XL was the biggest single step forward in development of the 8-bit
Atari platform, but the corresponding software compatability problems hurt its
popularity.

The 1200XL lacks separate chroma video signal, and also lacks the +5 Volts
power on pin 10 of the SIO port.

There is no PAL (European) version of the 1200XL.

The 1200XL was discontinued in 1983.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL?

Released in 1983 as a replacement for the 400, the 600XL is the low-end
version of the 800XL.  The 600XL/800XL include most of the features of the
1200XL minus the Function keys and the demo program.  But both the 800XL and
600XL have the Atari BASIC language built-in.  In addition, these two systems
offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing fast parallel access to the
heart of the computer.  The 600XL has 16K RAM.

The 600XL can be expanded from 16K to 64K with the Atari 1064 Memory Module.

Rarely, some late-model 600XLs were sold with 64K RAM.  These may have only
appeared in Canada.  The box had a round gold foil sticker reading: "64k
Memory -- Now with a full 64k of memory built-in."

Normally boots with Atari BASIC (Revision B) enabled; Hold down [Option] on
startup to boot without BASIC.

The North American/NTSC 600XL does not include a composite monitor port; The
European/PAL 600XL includes the monitor port, but this lacks the chroma video
signal.

The 600XL was discontinued in 1984.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL?

Released in 1983 as a replacement for the 800 and 1200XL, the 800XL is the
high-end version of the 600XL.  The 600XL/800XL include most of the features
of the 1200XL minus the Function keys and the demo program.  But both the
800XL and 600XL have the Atari BASIC language built-in.  In addition, these
two systems offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing fast parallel
access to the heart of the computer.  The 800XL contains 64K RAM.

Normally boots with Atari BASIC (Rev. B, or late models with Rev. C) enabled;
Hold down [Option] on startup to boot without BASIC.

The 800XL monitor port lacks the separate chroma video signal (exception: next
paragraph).

Late models (uncommon) of the 800XL, sold in Europe, include a redesigned
motherboard (the XE design), incorporate the FREDDIE memory management chip,
and do provide chroma output on the monitor port.  BASIC in these machines is
Revision C.  This version of the 800XL is sometimes called the "800XLF."

Further variations of the 800XL (very rare): some late 800XL machines shipped
with 128K RAM; some 800XL machines sold in France have a SCART connector in
place of the standard monitor port.

Production of the 800XL was discontinued in 1985.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE?

Introduced in 1985 as a replacement for the 800XL, the 65XE is the low-end
version of the 130XE.  The 65XE is nearly identical to the 800XL in features,
minus the PBI.  Many European (PAL) 65XE's and some late-production North
American (NTSC) 65XE's include the ECI port.  All XE computers also include
the FREDDIE memory management chip.

Normally boots with Atari BASIC (Revision C) enabled; Hold down [Option] on
startup to boot without BASIC.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE?

Released in 1985, the 130XE is the high-end version of the 65XE.  The 130XE
offers 128K RAM, plus the FREDDIE memory management chip, supporting the
unique (but rarely used) ability for the 6502 and the ANTIC to independently
access RAM banks.  In addition, the 130XE replaces the PBI port with the
Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI), continuing the powerful feature of a fast
parallel port.

Normally boots with Atari BASIC (Revision C) enabled; Hold down [Option] on
startup to boot without BASIC.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE?

Unseen and unknown in North America, the 800XE was sold in eastern Europe. The
800XE is identical in features to the European version of the 65XE, including
the ECI port.  The 800XE could also be described as a 64K version of the
130XE.

Normally boots with Atari BASIC (Revision C) enabled; Hold down [Option] on
startup to boot without BASIC.

Jindrich Kubec writes, "The problematic Chinese 800XEs with GTIA problems were
manufactured in 1992."

The 800XE was last manufactured in 1992.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.10) What is the Atari XE Game System?

In a change of marketing strategy, Atari introduced the new XE Game System in
1987.  Despite its label, the XEGS is a true 8-bit Atari computer system.  It
offers the convenience of a detachable keyboard and built-in Missile Command
game, while offering 64K RAM and full compatibility with the 65XE.  It was
packaged with the Light Gun, and the Flight Simulator II and Bug Hunt
cartridges.

Keyboard connected/no cartridge:
     boots to Atari BASIC
Keyboard connected/no cartridge/[Select] held down at startup:
     boots to Missile Command
No keyboard connected/no cartridge:
     boots to Missile Command
No keyboard connected/no cartridge/[Select] held down at startup:
     boots from disk drive
No keyboard connected/no cartridge/[Select]+[Start] held down at startup: 
     boots from tape drive

[Option] held down at startup = BASIC on 
[Option] not pressed at startup = BASIC off 
(opposite from all other XL/XE machines)

Andreas Magenheimer writes:
     Tip: The confused XEGS Atarian should use the XEGS manager by Mat*Rat
     (Mathew Ratcliff). This assumes one knows at least how to boot a disk
     with the XEGS...

James Bradford offers:
  There is only 1 32K ROM in the XEGS, it has the OS, BASIC (Rev C) and
  Missile Command on it.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.11) What are the 6502, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE chips?

Some of the following text is taken from De Re Atari (Atari#APX-90008), a book
published by Atari through the Atari Program Exchange (APX) and copyright 1982
by Chris Crawford, et al.  See http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/ where the
full text of De Re Atari is now available online.

The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very different from other
systems.  It of course has a microprocessor (a 6502), RAM, ROM, and a PIA.
However, it also has three special-purpose (LSI) chips known as ANTIC, GTIA,
and POKEY.  These chips were designed by Atari engineers primarily to take
much of the burden of housekeeping off of the 6502, thereby freeing the 6502
to concentrate on computations.  While they were at it, they designed a great
deal of power into these chips. Each of these chips is almost as big (in terms
of silicon area) as a 6502, so the three of them together provide a tremendous
amount of power.  Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers is primarily a matter of
mastering these three chips.

6502 Central Processing Unit (CPU)  --  6502C:CO14806
====
While the 400/800 models contain a generic 6502B CPU (a faster version of the
original 6502A microprocessor), all of the XL/XE models contain Atari's
customized 6502C chip.

On the Atari, there are two microprocessors, ANTIC and the 6502.  To allow
them to coexist, ANTIC must shut off the 6502, a process called DMA.  The
6502B supports DMA, but in Atari's implementation, it required 4 chips.  The
6502C has an extra line called HALT. It is controlled by ANTIC which uses it
whenever it needs the data/address bus. The HALT line is on pin 35 of the
Atari 6502C and must be pulled high for the chip to work.

ANTIC --  400/800/NTSC:CO12296  400/800/PAL:CO14887
=====       XL/XE/NTSC:CO21697    XL/XE/PAL:CO21698
ANTIC ("Alpha-Numeric Television Interface Circuit") is a microprocessor
dedicated to the television display.  It is a true microprocessor; it has an
instruction set, a program (called the display list), and data.  The display
list and the display data are written into RAM by the 6502.  ANTIC retrieves
this information from RAM using direct memory access (DMA).  It processes the
higher level instructions in the display list and translates these
instructions into a real-time stream of simple instructions to GTIA.

Frank Schuster writes (6/1/02):
     the patent for the ANTIC processor: 
          
     U.S. Patent 4,296,476 October 20, 1981 for a "Data processing system
     with programmable graphics generator". Inventors listed: Steven T.
     Mayer; Jay G. Miner; Douglas G. Neubauer; Joseph C. Decuir
  
CTIA/GTIA  --  CTIA/NTSC:CO12295  GTIA/NTSC:CO14805  GTIA/PAL:CO14889
=========
CTIA ("Color Television Interface Adapter") / GTIA ("Graphics Television
Interface Adapter") is a television interface chip.  ANTIC directly controls
most of GTIA's operations, but the 6502 can be programmed to intercede and
control some or all of GTIA's functions.  GTIA converts the digital commands
from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the signal that goes to the television.  GTIA
also adds some factors of its own, such as color values, player-missile
graphics, and collision detection.

Early North American 400/800 models shipped with CTIA.  Later 400/800
models, all European 400/800's, and all later 8-bit Ataris included GTIA.

Jerry Jessop adds:
  "The very first proto systems did have the GTIA, but it had some
  problems and was not released in the consumer version until 1981.  The
  GTIA was completed before the CTIA."

In BASIC, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN] and if the screen blackens, you have the
GTIA chip.  If it stays blue, you have the old CTIA chip.

Clay Halliwell provides this tidbit:
  A bit of trivia: CTIA 400/800s artifact in blue/green, GTIA 400/800s
  artifact in green/blue, and all XL/XEs artifact in red/blue.

Jerry Jessop explains why French Ataris produce fewer colors:
  I will tell you why it only has monochrome out, because it's SECAM and a
  SECAM GTIA was never produced. The PAL GTIA is used in France and the Lum
  outputs are run into an onboard encoder to produce a "psudo" color depending
  on the Luminance output, composite only. This is why a SECAM VCS or 800 has
  nowhere near the same number of colors (16) availible as a PAL or NTSC unit
  (256).

  The FGTIA was never completed as the market size did not warrant the
  expense.  The largest SECAM market is not France but the Soviet Union
  (former) and in 80-84 sales of these items there were not possible.

Frank Schuster writes (6/1/02):
    ..here a summary of Atari patents covering technical parts of the GTIA/
    CTIA or at least the steps of development to it. I found them by
    following the references made in the "newest" patent 4,324,401 which at
    the end stands for the GTIA.
        
    U.S. Patent 4,324,401 April 13, 1982 for a "Method and system for
    generating moving objects on a video display screen". Inventors listed:
    David R. Stubben, Lyle V. Rains. References: 4,116,444; 4,107,665
        
    U.S. Patent 4,189,728 February 19, 1980 for an "Apparatus for
    generating a plurality of moving objects on a video display screen
    utilizing associative memory". Inventor listed: David R. Stubben.
    References: 4,116,444; 4,045,789
        
    U.S. Patent 4,116,444 September 26, 1978 for a "Method for generating a
    plurality of moving objects on a video display screen". Inventors listed:
    Steven T. Mayer; Ronald E. Milner. References: 4,016,362; 3,793,483
        
    U.S. Patent 4,107,665 August 15, 1978 for an "Apparatus for continuous
    variation of object size on a raster type video screen". Inventors listed:
    Steven T. Mayer; Ronald E. Milner
        
    U.S. Patent 4,045,789 August 30, 1977 for a "Animated video image display
    system and method". Inventor listed: Stephen D. Bristow. References:
    3,793,483
        
    U.S. Patent 4,016,362 April 5, 1977 for a "Multiple image positioning
    control system and method". Inventors listed: Stephen D. Bristow; Steven
    T. Mayer. References: 3,793,483
        
    U.S. Patent 3,793,483 February 19, 1974 for a "Video Image Control System
    for Amusement Device". Inventor listed: Nolan K. Bushnell

POKEY  --  CO12294
=====
POKEY (means "POT and KEY" as in the paddles and keyboard) is a digital
input/output (I/O) chip.  It handles such disparate tasks as the serial I/O
bus, audio generation, keyboard scan, and random number generation.  It also
digitizes the resistive paddle inputs and controls maskable interrupt (IRQ)
requests from peripherals.

All four of these LSI chips function simultaneously.  Careful separation of
their functions in the design phase has minimized conflicts between the chips.
The only hardware level conflict between any two chips in the system occurs
when ANTIC needs to use the address and data buses to fetch its display
information.  To do this, it halts the 6502 and takes control of the buses."

The USPTO granted U.S. Patent 4,314,236 to Atari on February 2, 1982 for an
"Apparatus for producing a plurality of audio sound effects" - POKEY. 
Inventors listed: Steven T. Mayer, Ronald E. Milner

FREDDIE  --  CO61922, CO61991
=======
The 65XE/130XE/800XE/XEGS contain a small additional LSI called FREDDIE, a RAM
address multiplexer.  According to James Bradford, "FREDDIE is a type of
memory controller.  It takes the address and clock from the CPU and
multiplexes it with the appropriate timings and signals to use DYNAMIC memory.
FREDDIE also buffers the system clock crystal and divides it down then feeds
that to GTIA.  The XEGS has a FREDDIE but it doesn't have the extended RAM.
Even if it did, you would still need the chip that does the REAL bank
switching.  It is a small 16-pin chip (Atari/Best Electronics catalog number
CO25953: rev9/page 42).  It gets RAS from FREDDIE, the bank select bits from
PIA, A14, A15 and the 6502 halt signal to control which bank of 8 chips RAS
goes to.  A14 and A15 then go to FREDDIE for the address range of the extra
memory bank (or normal address range with no bank switching).  The ANTIC/6502
select bits in combination with the 6502 halt line, control the switching of
the PIA bank number bits to A14/A15 and which bank of memory RAS goes to. Why
people say FREDDIE does the bank switching is beyond me.  An 800XL can look
like a 130XE with that 16-pin chip installed (That's right NO FREDDIE) and an
extra 8 RAM chips."

And more recently James Bradford has written:
FREDDIE is just a memory decoder and timer. It replaces several chips in the
800XL.  The small chip near FREDDIE does all the bank selection.  CO25953. One
line from FREDDIE, Ras (or is it cas?) goes to this chip, Halt and the bank
/processor select lines go into this same chip and ras (cas?) comes out. A pin
for each bank.  If I remember correctly, refresh also goes into this small
chip. It would be quite easy to make an 800XL work just like a 130XE with this
chip since Ras (Cas?) is required by ALL dynamic RAM.

======
Technical data sheets and schematics for the ANTIC, GTIA, and POKEY chips were
available on Curt Vendel's web site, thanks to permission from Hasbro's Atari
Interactive Division's release of this data.  

A site that mirrored the high-res images as PDFs: http://www.retromicro.com/

Keith Howell has converted the hi-res TIFFs into clean HTML:
   http://www.howell1964.freeserve.co.uk/Atari/800XL/Atari_800XL.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 1.12) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?

ASCII art by Thomas Havemeister.

                  ->                    
+---------------------------------------+
|            +------------+             |
|            | CPU (6502) |         +-------+
|            +------------+      <- |  I/O- |
|                  |     +----------|release|
|                 +-+    |          +-------+
| +---------+<-   |p|    |               |
| |   MMU   |-----| |    | <-+---------+-|----------+----------+
*-| memory- |     |r|    *---|   PIA   | | (trigger)|Controller|====\
| |managment|-----|-+--------| (6520)  | |+---------|   Ports  |====/
| +---------+<-   |o| -> |   +---------+-|-+  <-->  +----------+
|                 | |    |               |||           |    |
|   +-----+       |c|    | <-+---------+ |||           |(lightpen)
|   | RAM |<-A/D  | |    *---|  ANTIC  | |||           |    |
*---|8-128|-------|e|----|---|(2nd CPU)|---------------+    |
|   |Kbyte|->D    | | -> |   +---------+ ||| +---------------
|   +-----+       |s|    |       ||      ||| |
|                 | |    | <-+---------+-|||--------+(screen)
|  +-------+      |s|    *---|  GTIA   |-|+| |      |
|  | Atari |<-A   | |----|---|  /CTIA  | | | | +----------+   +-----------+
|  | BASIC |------|o| -> |   +---------+ | | | | summary  |===| modulator |
*--|8 Kbyte|->D   | |    |               | | | |connection|===| ^^^^^^^^^ |
|  |  ROM  |      |r|    | <-+---------+ | | | +----------+   +-----------+ 
|  +-------+      | |    +---|  POKEY  |-|-|-+      |(sound)        |
|                 | |--------|         |-|-|--------+               |
|  +-------+      |b| ->     +---------+ | +----------+             |
|  |AtariOS|<-A   | |                 |  |            |             |
*--|10/16Kb|------|u|                 +--|----------+ |         tv/monitor
|  |  ROM  |->D   | +-----------------   |          | |         **********
|  +-------+      |s|              | |   |          | |
|                 | |              | |   |          | |
|                 +-+              +-+   |          | |
|                  |                |    |          | |
+--------------*---|------------*---|    |          | |
               |   |            |   |    |          | |
             +-----------+    +-----------+    +------------+
             |ParallelBus|    | Cartridge |    |   Serial   |
             |Interface/ |    |   Slot    |    |Input/Output|
             | Enhanced  |    |    ROM    |    |    (SIO)   |
             | Cartridge |    +-----------+    +------------+
             | Interface |          |                |
             +-----------+          |                |
                   |                |                |
        - memory expansion    -cartridge with   - disk drive
        - Z80 card             programs         - printer
        - 80 char card         (games , dos )   - modem

NOTES
 * RAM: 400/800: 8K, 16K or 48K standard
        600XL:16K standard
        1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEGS: 64K standard
        130XE:128K standard
 * ROM: 400/800:10K OS, 1200XL:16K OS, all others:16K OS + 8K Atari BASIC
 * CPU: 400/800:6502B, all others:6502C
 * 800 includes two Cartridge Slots, all others include one
 * early release 400/800 have CTIA instead of GTIA
 * 400/800 have 4 Controller Ports, all others have 2
 * PBI is on 600XL/800XL only
 * ECI is on 130XE/800XE/some 65XE only
 * Some late XE's use a 68B21 for PIA; PIA is 6520/6520A on all others

The following are most of the team who originally designed the 400/800.
   Credit for providing this information for the FAQ goes to:
   Doug Neubauer (by way of James Finnegan), Jerry Jessop, Scott Emmons

VLSI HARDWARE:
Jay Miner - Creator and System architect, VSLI manager
Steven T. Mayer - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering"
Lawrence D. Emmons - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering"
Joe Decuir - ANTIC and system and creator
???A French guy - ANTIC logic designer
George McLeod - CTIA and GTIA logic design
Doug Neubauer - POKEY logic design
Mark Shieu - POKEY chip design
Steve Stone - POKEY layout design
Steve Smith - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA
Delwin Pearson - Technician for POKEY

According to Atari Explorer magazine, the 130XE was engineered by Jose Valdes.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.13) What issues surround NTSC vs PAL versions of the 8-bit Atari?

Contributors to this section:
Wayne Booth, Graham Thornton, Brent Buescher Jr., Thomas Richter, Jindroush

Some quick definitions first:

NTSC standard: Abbreviation for "National Television Standards Committee"
TV signal standard used in North America, Central America, a number of South
American countries, and some Asian countries, including Japan.
  o  525 lines per frame
  o  60 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 60 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 30 times per second

PAL: Acronym for "phase alternation by line" 
TV signal standard used in the United Kingdom, much of the rest of western
Europe, several South American countries, some Middle East and Asian
countries, several African countries, Australia, New Zealand, and other
Pacific island countries.
  o  625 lines per frame
  o  50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second.

PAL-M: A modified version of PAL, used in Brazil.

SECAM: Acronym for "systeme electronique couleur avec memoire"
TV signal standard used in France, eastern European countries, the former
USSR, and some African countries.
  o  625 lines per frame
  o  50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second.


Now then, how do the differences among 8-bit Atari computers designed for the
different world television signal standards affect users trying to use
software written elsewhere in the world?

The 50Hz vertical refresh frequency of PAL machines translates into more
vertical blank interrupt (VBI) time for demos and other computation-intensive
graphics software, when compared to the time available for VBIs on NTSC
machines with the faster 60Hz refresh frequency.  So PAL demos and games that
won't work on NTSC machines are usually returning from a VBI too late.  Some
also attempt to use more vertical resolution ("longer" display lists) than an
NTSC display can handle.

Note that the reverse is also true.  Software using VBIs will run more slowly
on a PAL Atari than on an NTSC Atari.

Replacing the NTSC ANTIC chip in an NTSC Atari with a PAL ANTIC changes the
screen refresh rate to 50Hz, allowing most of the PAL-only European software
to run on a North American NTSC Atari.  However, make sure your display device
can support a 50Hz PAL signal first!  North American Atari users can also
obtain and use real European PAL Atari machines, with the same caveat
concerning the display device.

Bottom line:
Software written for NTSC machines (North America) will (almost) always work
on PAL machines (Europe), but software designed on PAL machines won't
necessarily work on NTSC machines.

Jindroush contributes: (2/26/02)
Could there be a program which runs on NTSC Atari and not on PAL Atari?  Yes,
if it uses some precise timing copy protection (probably based on vblank
timing).  Examples of these are Transylvania and The Quest by Penguin
Software.

Thomas Richter mentions another NTSC vs PAL issue:
Another point is that the popular pseudo-colors used in the ANTIC-F (Graphics
8) mode are not colorful at all when displayed on a PAL TV, because of
differences in the color encoding for the TV.  The schematics of the XL
computers include however a hack how to change the PAL version to the NTSC
version (the PAL versions include two crystals, one with 5/4th of the
frequency of the other.  One is used for the system clock, the other for the
color clock), but I never dared to apply it.

And on 10/16/03 Thomas Richter answered a related question this way:
>> Note that it's typically not too hard to get an NTSC Atari to run in PAL
>> by just swapping out the ANTIC chip.
>>
>> Unfortunately, some demos actually check the OS ROM for a particular
>> value to see if it's a PAL machine or not, and then refuse to run if
>> they are.  *grumble*  I'd rather have a warning than a refusal. :^P

> As far as I am aware, the only value to tell a PAL from a NTSC machine is in
> GTIA. Maybe swap that one as well and see what you get

Absolutey correct, GTIA keeps the PAL/NTSC register and the OS ROM reads it
from there.  However, besides the GTIA PAL and NTSC machines differ in other
aspects.  For example, on PAL machines an additional oscillator of 5/4 of the
main frequency is present to generate the color frequencies needed to drive
GTIA.  There is no such circuit in NTSC Ataris.  Besides, this factor of 5/4
is also the reason why you don't get "artifacted colors" on PAL machines (or,
at least, not very good ones.) 

------------------------------
 
Subject: 1.14) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari?

Contributors to this section: Steve Wallance (CX22 trackball meanings),
Jer Sobola (SECAM monitor jack)

Controller Port (4 on 400/800, 2 on all others):
      1         5
       o o o o o
        o o o o
       6       9                      CX22 trackball meanings:
1. (Joystick) Forward Input               X Direction
2. (Joystick) Back Input                  X Motion
3. (Joystick) Left Input                  Y Direction
4. (Joystick) Right Input                 Y Motion
5. B Potentiometer Input
6. Trigger Input / Light Pen Input. Port 4 only on 400
7. +5V
8. Ground
9. A Potentiometer Input

Serial I/O (SIO) Port (all machines):
         2           12
          o o o o o o
         o o o o o o o
        1             13
1. Clock Input             8. Motor Control
2. Clock Output            9. Proceed
3. Data Input             10. +5V/Ready (not on 1200XL)
4. Ground                 11. Audio Input
5. Data Output            12. +12V (400,800 only. 1400XL/1450XLD?)
6. Ground                 13. Interrupt
7. Command

Cartridge Slot ("Left" slot on all machines; "Right" slot on 800 only):
 A  B  C  D  E  F  H  J  K  L  M  N  P  R  S
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 1                                         15
 1. ~S4(Left) R/~W late(Right) A. RD4(Left) B02(Right)
 2. A3                         B. GND
 3. A2                         C. A4
 4. A1                         D. A5
 5. A0                         E. A6
 6. D4                         F. A7
 7. D5                         H. A8
 8. D2                         J. A9
 9. D1                         K. A12
10. D0                         L. D3
11. D6                         M. D7
12. ~S5(Left) ~S4(Right)       N. A11
13. +5V                        P. A10
14. RD5(Left) RD4(Right)       R. R/~W
15. ~CCTL                      S. B02

Monitor Jack (all but 400, N. American 600XL, XE Game System, SECAM
systems):
3 o     o 1
   o   o
 5   o   4
     2
1. Composite Luminance (Composite Video on 600XL)
2. Ground
3. Audio Output
4. Composite Video
5. Composite Chroma (not on 800XL(most),1200XL; grounded on 600XL)

Monitor Jack, SECAM systems:
  5    V    1    1 +12V DC 5mA max 
    o     o      2 Audio 1 output
       o 3       3 Audio 2 output
    o     o      4 Video output
  4    o    2    5 GND
       6         6 +5V 100mA max
                 Amplitude Audio 2 is about 6 times closer than Audio 1

Power Adapter Plug (all but 400,800,1200XL,1400XL,1450XLD):
    7     6        1. +5V
     o   o         2. Shield
  3 o     o 1      3. Ground
     o   o         4. +5V
   5   o   4       5. Ground
       2           6. +5V
                   7. Ground

Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only):
 1                                                                       49
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 2                                                                       50
  1. GND ground                2. External select
  3. A0 Address output         4. A1
  5. A2                        6. A3
  7. A4                        8. A5
  9. A6                       10. GND
 11. A7                       12. A8
 13. A9                       14. A10
 15. A11                      16. A12
 17. A13                      18. A14
 19. GND                      20. A15
 21. D0 Data (bidirectional)  22. D1
 23. D2                       24. D3
 25. D4                       26. D5
 27. D6                       28. D7
 29. GND                      30. GND
 31. Phase 2 clock output     32. GND
 33. NC Reserved              34. Reset output
 35. (IRQ) Interrupt request  36. Ready input
 37. NC                       38. External decoder output
 39. NC                       40. Refresh output
 41. Column address output    42. GND
 43. Math pack disable input  44. Row addr strobe
 45. GND                      46. Latch read/write out
 47. NC (+5V on 600XL only)   48. NC (+5V on 600XL only, used to power 1064)
 49. Audio input              50. GND

Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI) (130XE, 800XE, and some 65XE only):
     A B C D E F H
     o o o o o o o
     o o o o o o o
     1           7
A. Reserved   1. ~EXSEL
B. ~IRQ       2. ~RST
C. ~HALT      3. ~D1XX
D. A13        4. ~MPD
E. A14        5. Audio
F. A15        6. ~REF
H. GND        7. +5V

Keyboard Port (XE Game System only):
           1               8
            o o o o o o o o
             o o o o o o o
            9             15
1. KR2 Keyboard Response   8. K2 Keyboard Scan
2. K3 Keyboard Scan        9. Ground
3. K4 Keyboard Scan       10. Not Connected
4. K5 Keyboard Scan       11. Ground
5. KR1 Keybaord Response  12. Not Connected
6. K0 Keyboard Scan       13. Trigger 2
7. K1 Keyboard Scan       14. 5 VDC
                          15. 5 VDC

------------------------------

Subject: 2.1) What video display devices can I use with my Atari?

Contributors to channel output variations list:
Jon Levy, Rene de Bie, Sysop Fox-1

Most 8-bit Atari computers put out video signals in two places:

1) Radio-Frequency (RF) signal, either one VHF channel, or two VHF channels
selectable by a switch on the computer.  Variations depend primarily on the
part of the world that the particular version of the computer was desgined
for.

Most North American computers: VHF channels 2-3 switch-selectable.
                               channels 3-4 switch selectable also reported
European computers: VHF channels 3-4 switch-selectable, 
                    or no switch (what channel?) both reported
UK computers: VHF channel 36, no switch, 
              or channels 38-39 switch selectable both reported
Australian computers: VHF channel 1 (400/800: channels 1-2 selectable)

Any further clarifications would be appreciated!

Accessories needed:
  a) RF Cable. (RF=radio frequency--video and audio signals in the same line)
     On the 400/800 models, the RF Cable does not detach from the computer.
     The output end of the cable is an RCA male connector.

  b) TV Switch Box.  Includes an RCA female connector for RF signal input from
     the Atari, input connector(s) for your TV attenna and/or cable TV
     company, and 75- and/or 300-ohm VHF output connector(s) for connection to
     the VHF input on the television. (Radio Shack carries a suitable TV
     Switch Box.)

2) A proprietary 5-pin DIN Monitor Jack, which includes two video signals:
  a) Composite video.
  b) Y/C Video, also known as S-Video:
     separate composite luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals.

Exceptions among the computer models:
-the 400 and North American 600XL lack the Monitor Jack.
-the XE Game System includes an RCA-style jack in place of the Monitor Jack,
 providing a plain composite video signal only.
-the Monitor Jack on the 600XL, 800XL(most) and 1200XL lacks the separate
 chrominance signal.  (But it exists internally, and can be restored to the
 monitor jack via hardware modification.)

The pinout for the Atari Monitor Jack is in the pinouts sections of this FAQ
list.

The typical Atari Monitor Cable includes the male 5-pin DIN connector on one
end, and two RCA male connectors on the other end.  One of the RCA connectors
will carry the monophonic sound signal, and the other will carry the composite
video signal.  Color composite monitors were common in the mid-80's, but these
days many televisions have an RCA female composite video input connector which
works fine with the Atari.

You may find an Atari Monitor Cable where the video signal carried on the
second RCA connector is not the composite video signal, but the composite
luminance signal.  These cables are for use with monochrome composite video
monitors (usually green or amber).

The ideal Atari Monitor Cable includes 4 RCA male connectors on the output
end, carrying the sound signal, the composite video signal, the composite
luminance signal, and the composite chrominance signal.  Only the best
composite monitors include separate chrominance and luminance inputs.  When
the separate chrominance and luminance connectors are used, the composite
video connector is not used. 

There is no real standard for colors for the different monitor cable
connectors.  It is safe to identify them by trial and error.

Commodore produced many fine monitors of this type, popular with Atari users.
Lonnie McClure provides this information on suitable Commodore monitors:
  1701, 1702, 1802, CM-141, 1080, 2002, 1902, 1902A*, 1084**, 1084S**
 
  * The 1902A used a DIN connector for chroma/luma, which makes cabling a 
  bit more of a problem. The composite and audio connectors are standard 
  RCA jacks, however.
 
  ** The 1084 and 1084S had more than one version. Some used the a DIN 
  connector for chroma/luma connections, like the 1902A, while some used 
  standard RCA jacks.
 
  The 1902 and 1902A are very different in appearance. The original 1902 
  shares the same slightly rounded front case design as the 1080 and 2002, 
  while the 1902A is has a rather square case design, and was manufactured 
  by Magnavox (as were some of the 1084 and 1084S versions).

The separate composite chrominance and luminance signals that the Atari puts
out comprise what the world has since come to call Y/C video or S-video.
S-video connectors are normally Mini4.  It is possible to build a cable, or
purchase several adapters, that can allow you to utilize the separate Y/C
signals generated by the Atari with a television (or other display device)
that provides a standard S-video Mini4 input jack.  This is the ultimate
display option for the 8-bit Atari.  Clarence Dyson has a nice page about
such a project at http://www.geocities.com/atarimods/svideo.html .

Adapters also exist that will take in composite video or s-video, and output a
conversion of the signal as a standard VGA video signal.  These are often
known as a "VGA converter" or "Scan doubler" or "Up-converter."  With such a
device, the 8-bit Atari can be used with a standard PC VGA monitor.  One such
adapter is the Cheese Video Box from AV Toolbox, http://www.avtoolbox.com/. AV
Toolbox produces several other similar devices.  An earlier popular adapter
was the JAM!! from AIMS Lab.

SCART - an acronym for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorecepteurs
et Televiseurs - is a 21-pin universal connecting cable/socket system used for
audio/video components in Europe.  The cables transmit RGB, composite video,
S-Video, mono and stereo sound.  SCART, which is also known as PERITEL, EURO
AV BUS and EUROCONECTOR, is common throughout Europe, particularly in France,
England, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia.  SCART is also very popular in
the Russian Audio Video market.  It is possible to interface the Atari's
composite video signal, along with the audio signal, through a SCART
connector, though there have been few reports of people actually doing this.

Keith Howell has a nice page on some of these topics:
http://www.howell1964.freeserve.co.uk/Atari/800XL/Atari_800XL_Video.htm

December 2003--More Than Games announced "A8 A/V BOB", an audio/video
breakout box featuring phono connectors for composite video, chroma,
luminance, and mono audio; it also features an s-video jack providing chroma
and luminance.  http://www.a8maestro.com/sites/mtgcat/proda8/eh0101.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 3.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, and XC12 Program Recorders?

The Atari Program Recorders provide storage and retrieval of programs
and data on cassette tape.  In addition to the digital track that stores
computer data, a second audio track is provided to play music or voice
as the program runs.

Data transmission rate: 600 bits per second.
Data storate capacity: 100,000 bytes per 60-minute cassette.
Track configuration: 4 track, 2 channel (digital data and audio track)

410 Program Recorder       
- early Japan version had a carrying handle
- most versions made in Hong Kong
- 410a--Taiwan version 
- built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
- power - plugs directly into wall (most versions)
- "410P" version (rare).  Karl Heller writes:
  "It came in the white 410 box with an Atari yellow/orange paper slip
   stating which power supply to use with it."
 
1010 Program Recorder
- Chelco version has Stop/Eject, then Pause buttons
- Sanyo version has Pause, then Stop/Eject buttons
- two SIO ports

XC11 Program Recorder
- has a built-in SIO cable and one SIO port

XC12 Program Recorder
- built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain

Upgrades for the Atari Program Recorders
========================================
Andreas Magenheimer writes:  (2004.05.24)
  - turbo 6000: a turbo tape enhancement built in the former GDR (german
  democratic republic); it worked with 6000 Baud and required special
  loading/saving programs that were available as disk-files and also as
  cartridges;
Information on the Turbo 6000 Baud Interface and the Chaos Loader:
http://www-user.tu-chemnitz.de/~sgl/atari/turb6000/turb6000.htm

  - turbo 2000: a turbo tape enhancement built in Poland or the former
  Czechoslovakia; it worked with different speeds (ranging from 600 Baud
  to approx. 9600 Baud?) depending on the program itself and the transfer
  program; also required a special loading/saving program, available as
  disk-files and cartridges;
For more information on the Turbo 2000 (T2000) and SuperTurbo modifications
to Atari program recorders, with speeds up 9600 baud, see
http://jindroush.atari.org/

  - rambit turbo tape: a turbo tape enhancement built in the UK by Richard
  Gore and sold by Microdiscount (Derek Fern); it worked with 9600 Baud
  and came with some special software on disk; Microdiscount also sold
  many of its own commercial programs (Zeppelin games, etc.) on Rambit
  turbo tape...

------------------------------

Subject: 3.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari?

Firstly Atari themselves put out several models beyond the 410/1010/XC11/XC12,
generally only known in eastern Europe:

XCA12 Program Recorder     -in same case as XC12...Poland
CA12 Program Recorder      -in same case as XC12...Poland
    image: http://romualdl.multimania.com/images/atari/ca12.jpg
XL12 Program Recorder      -XC12 w/slight changed design. Czech/Slovak/Poland
XC13 Program Recorder      -XC12 which was "T2000 ready". Czech/Slovak/Poland

Unlike other microcomputer systems of the time, it was very unusual to use
anything but Atari-brand program cassette recorders.  One third-party product
released was the:

Compu-Mate, by General Electric (GE, G.E.)
Includes external interface module, a power cord/adapter, and SIO cable.
No second SIO port - must be at end of SIO chain.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.3) How do I run a program from cassette?

To run an Atari BASIC program from cassette:

1. Place the cassette in the recorder.
2. Press REWIND of FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position
   where the program is located.
3. Boot the computer to the Atari BASIC READY prompt.
4. There are several possibilities for the next step, depending on how the
   program was saved, and whether you want to run the program or just load
   it into RAM.  Enter one of the following four commands:
   a. CLOAD                       loads programs saved with CSAVE
   b. LOAD "C:"                   loads programs saved with SAVE "C:"
   c. ENTER "C:"                  loads programs saved with LIST "C:"
   d. RUN "C:"                    loads&runs programs saved with SAVE "C:"

] Relative efficiency of the three cassette tape recording techniques:
] CSAVE/CLOAD - most efficient - fastest saves/loads - tokenized files
] SAVE "C:"/LOAD "C:" - middle efficiency - middle speed - tokenized files
] LIST "C:"/ENTER "C:" - least efficient - slowest - straight ATASCII

5. The computer will "beep" as a signal for you to press PLAY on the recorder.
6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard, and the program will load
   into the computer.
7. Press STOP on the recorder when loading has finished.
8. Unless you entered RUN "C:" above, now enter the command: RUN

To run an Atari BASIC or machine language program from cassette upon
startup:

1. Place the cassette in the recorder
2. Press REWIND of FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position 
   where the program is located.
3. Turn on the computer while holding down the START key.
   But if your computer has Atari BASIC built-in and you're running a machine
   language program, hold down both the START key and the OPTION key.
4. The computer will "beep" as a signal for you to press PLAY on the recorder.
5. Let go of the START/OPTION button(s).
6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard, and the program will load
   into the computer.
7. Press STOP on the recorder when loading is complete and the program is
   running.
          
------------------------------

Subject: 3.4) What are the Atari 810, 815, 1050, and XF551 Disk Drives?

Section includes contributions by Andreas Magenheimer, TXG.

The Atari Disk Drives provide storage and retrieval of programs
and data on 5.25" floppy disks.

==> Atari 810  ---  a 5.25" floppy disk drive
The least common denominator for the Atari.  One mode of operation:
1) Single-Sided, Single-Density--
  FM   40 tracks  x  18 sectors/track  x  128 byte/sector  =  90K capacity
19.2Kbps transfer rate.  288RPM.  
The 810 includes a 6507 microprocessor.
Shipped with DOS I (very early) or DOS 2.0S
earlier MPI version- push button door opening for disk access
later Tandon version- lift door, like a garage door disk access
two SIO ports
Production of the 810 ended in May 1983.
accessories from Atari:
CX8100 Atari 810 Blank Diskettes (5 per box)
CX8111 Atari 810 Formatted Diskettes II (5 per box)
CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (5/box, certified for double density)

Third-party upgrades for the 810:
810 Archiver -- copy many copy-protected programs
Happy 810 -- Happy Backup, Warp Speed 52Kbps, 18 sector buffer
810 Fast Chip by Binary  10%-40% faster
810 Turbo by Neanderthal Computer Things (NCT) -- double-density
                        see: http://www.qnet.com/~dons/810T.html
810 Duplicator (DT-Duplicating Technologies) -- copy disks, double-density,
    "read 18 sectors in the time normally for 1"

==> Atari 815 Dual Disk Drive  ---  dual 5.25" floppy disk drives in one unit
Were produced (all hand-built), but are very rare.  One mode of operation.
Per drive:
1) Single-Sided, Double-Density--
  MFM  40 tracks  x  18 sectors/track  x  256 bytes/sector  =  180K capacity
19.2Kbps transfer rate.  288RPM.  
The 815 includes a 6507 microprocessor.
Shipped with DOS 2.0D
MPI mechanism version- push button door opening for disk access
Tandon mechanism version- lift door, like a garage door disk access
accessories from Atari:
CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (5 per box, certified for double density)
  Stephen Knox writes (12/28/02):
  I believe the story on the 815s was Atari didn't want to release them due to
  severe QA problems with the drive but they had so many preorders they had to
  release something.  I think they filled the preorders and then cancelled the
  model - Most of them got returned due to problems.

==> Atari 1050  ---  a 5.25" floppy disk drive
Same as the 810, plus Dual-Density capability.  Two modes of operation:
1) Single-Sided, Single-Density, 90K, 810 compatible
2) Single-Sided, Dual-Density, otherwise known as "Enhanced Density" because
  it is not true double-density--
  MFM  40 tracks  x  26 sectors/track  x  128 bytes/sector  =  128K capacity
19.2Kbps transfer rate.  288RPM
The 1050 includes a 6507 microprocessor.
Shipped with DOS 2.0S, DOS 3, or DOS 2.5
DIP switches:    Black & white left: Drive 1
            Black right, white left: Drive 2
            Black left, white right: Drive 3
                Black & white right: Drive 4
Third-party upgrades for the 1050 (all add a true SSDD 180K capability):
US Doubler (ICD)      SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed (US) 54Kbps, sector skewing
Happy 1050            SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps, 36 sector buffer, 
  (Happy Computers)   Happy Backup. also read/write 180K 5.25" MS-DOS floppies
I.S. Plate (Innovated Software) SS SD/ED/DD Ultra/Warp (USD/Happy clone)
Hyper Drive (Chaos! Computers)   SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps (Happy clone)
Super Archiver (CSS)  SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps (US Doubler clone)
Super Archiver II(CSS)SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps (US Doubler clone)
Cheer-Up 1050         SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps (Happy clone)
Speedy 1050           SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 57Kbps (Happy clone), 8kb buffer,
  (Compy Shop, now ABBUC) DOS, copier, track & density displays, beep speaker
Mini-Speedy           same as Speedy 1050, but without displays & speaker
Super Speedy 1050     SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 96Kbps (Happy clone),192K or
  (Compy Shop)                    256K RAM
SuperMax 1050         SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 52Kbps (US Doubler clone)
Lazer 1050            SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed and UltraSpeed 54Kbps
Engl-Turbo-1050       SS SD/ED/DD Turbo Speed approx. 70Kbps (uses
  (german Turbo)                  Sector skewing that differs from USDoubler)
1050 Duplicator (Duplicating Technologies (DT))
                      SS SD/ED/DD "read 18 sectors in the time normally for 1"
  sources(Jim Patchell)http://www.oldcrows.net/~patchell/atari/duplicator.html
Klone                 ???????

Rich Mier professes:
You've been plugging and unplugging the SIO cable with the 1050 power pack
plugged in, right?  That's a no-no.  Most of the time it's Okay, but about 1
in 10, 20 times, it will blow out 'U-1'.  It's a CA/LM 3086 I.C. at the right,
rear of the main board.  A 14 pin DIL chip.  Actually it is an array of 5
transistors.

Unplug the power pack from the 1050, then unplug the SIO cable.  Power can be
ON on the CPU.  The problem has to do with the secondary winding of the Power
Pack.  Remember, the problem only occurs 1 out of 10 - 20 times that you do
it, not all the time.

It doesn't really matter if the 1050 Transformer has power on or off, it
'Might' happen if plugged into the 1050.  It is really bad on 810's.

One thing, if the system has been turned off for, oh say, 5 - 10 minutes it
won't matter.  By then all the capacitors should be bled(sc?) to 0 volts.

==> Atari XF551  ---  a 5.25" floppy disk drive.  Four modes of operation:
1) Single-Sided, Single-Density, 90K, 810 compatible
2) Single-Sided, Enhanced-Density, 128K, 1050 compatible
3) Single-Sided, Double-Density, 180K, Percom & other 3rd parties compatible
4) Double-Sided, Double-Density--
  MFM  80 tracks  x  18 sectors/track  x  256 bytes/sector  =  360K capacity
  Writes "backwards" to the second side of the disk, when compared to a two-
  sided "flippy" disk with SSDD 180K format on each side
High speed 38400 bps burst mode usable only with SpartaDOS X, SuperDOS 5.1,
  TurboDOS, DOS XE, and patched SpartaDOS 3.2.
Rotaton rate: 300RPM.  Since all other Atari-specific drives run at 288RPM,
  this results in rare compatibility issues.  Specifically, these commercial
  disks do not load in, and can be damaged by, the XF551:
  - Flight Simulator II (subLOGIC)
  - Blue Max (Synapse)
  - Bank Street Writer (Broderbund).  Conflicting reports about this one.
8040 cpu +  external ROM or 8050 cpu with internal ROM
Shipped with DOS 2.5 or DOS XE.
DIP switches:    Both dips down: Drive 1
            Left down, right up: Drive 2
            Left up, Right down: Drive 3
              Left and Right up: Drive 4
Chinon-built XF551-cannot read/write/format backside if no timing hole
Mitsumi-built XF551--can read/write backside if to timing hole, if formatted
The key engineer/designer of the XF551 was Jose Valdes at Atari
Third-party upgrades for the XF551:
CSS XF Single Drive Upgrade--3.5", 720K floppy drive replacement
                       also read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
                       see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm
CSS XF Dual Drive Upgrade--add 3.5" drive w/o losing the 5.25" drive
                       also read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
                       see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm
CSS XF551 Enhancer--overcomes sensor for index hole, create flippy disks
                         see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XF551enh.htm
CSS XF Update--replace drive OS, adds UltraSpeed
                         see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFupdate.htm
Hyper-XF--available for 5.25" or 3.5" floppy versions; uses sector skewing
aka          and UltraSpeed (but no track buffer!); can use disk partitions
HyperXF      (2 on 5.25", 4 partitions on 3.5") with mixed Densities (S/E/D)
             or standard 360kbytes (5.25") / 720kbytes (3.5"); can 
             theoretically read/write ST/PC 720k disks (software is missing!) 
             OS created by Stefan Dorndorf/Germany;
                             photo: <http://ftp.atari.art.pl/stuff/collections
                                  nir_dary_cds/Pictures2/035%20Hyper%20XF.jpg>
XF-Speedy--replaces the 8040 CPU with a 65C02 + ROM + Memory

------------------------------

Subject: 3.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari?

Major contributors to this section: Glenn M. Saunders, Tomasz M. Tatar,
James Bradford, Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, Don Schoengarth, Andreas
Magenheimer

SD=Single-Density, 90K/disk side
ED=Enhanced-Density, 128K/disk side
DD=Double-Density, 180K/disk side

SS=Single-Sided   
DS=Double-Sided (one of 3 possible data-mappings, see below for details)

Printer port=has a standard DB25 parallel printer port,+ maybe a print buffer
Master=includes drive controller, can add additional,non-Atari-specific drives

Top transfer rate is 19.2Kbps unless stated otherwise.

Floppy disk drives designed for the 8-bit Atari computers:
Atari 810           SS SD
Atari 1050          SS SD/ED
Atari XF551         DS SD/ED/DD, 38.4Kbps burst mode
Access Unlimited ATAR88-1  SS SD master
Access Unlimited ATAR40-1  SS SD/DD master
Amdek AMDC I  SS SD/DD uses flippy Amdisk III 3" disk/carts,printerport,master
Amdek AMDC II      SS SD/DD dual drives, printer port, master
AS SN-360            DS SD/ED/DD
Astra 1620           SS SD/DD dual drives
Astra 2001           SS SD/DD dual drives
Astra Big-D          DS SD/DD dual drives
Astra The One        DS SD/DD, printer port
B&C 810              SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps
Concorde C-221M      SS SD/DD master
Concorde C-222M      DS SD/DD master
CSS Floppy Board, for the Black Box, master, support PC 720K and 1.44MB 3.5"
                      drives, support PC 1.2MB and 360kB 5.25" drives,
                      also read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks
                      see: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm
High-Density Disk Interface (HDI) by Erhard Puetz. a PCB, master
                     connect up to 4 standard PC high-density drives
Indus GT             SS SD/ED/DD, Synchromesh mode usable with SpartaDOS X
     and DOS XL only.  72Kbps under SpartaDOS X, 37Kbps under DOS XL. Z-80 cpu
     RAM-Charger--expansion card contains 64K RAM + software, for CP/M support
Karin Maxi           PBI/ECI device, master, WD1772 + 2KB driver ROM
                     DS formats use PC-standard 'head-first' mapping
L.E. Systems LEDS5-01  SS SD/DD master, 134.4Kbps, 800 only
                       CP/M expansion: 4MHz Z80, 64K RAM
L.E. Systems LEFDC-04  SS SD Four drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only
L.E. Systems LEFDC-08  SS SD Eight drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only
LDW Super 2000       SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 67Kbps
   image: http://romualdl.multimania.com/images/atari/super2000.jpg
LDW CA2001           SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 38.4Kbps "California Access"
   image: http://romualdl.multimania.com/images/atari/ca2001.jpg
LDW CA2002           DS SD/ED/DD,19.2Kbps,70Kbps w/SpartaDOS. "Calif. Access"
Micro MainFrame MF-1681   SS SD/DD, printer port, 4K to 54K printer buffer,
     hard disk firmware included, master, Z-80 CPU w/ 16K to 64K RAM for CP/M,
     TRSDOS, MaxiDOS A, and OASIS. see: http://www.qnet.com/~dons/mmf.html
Micro MainFrame MF-1682   dual drives version of MF-1681
Percom RFD40-S1      SS SD/DD, master
Percom RFD40-S2      SS SD/DD dual drives, master
Percom RFD44-S1      DS SD/DD, master
Percom RFD44-S2      DS SD/DD dual drives, master
 (80-track RFDs hinted at http://www.atarimagazines.com/v1n2/newproducts.html)
Percom AT88          SS SD, master
Percom AT88-S1 PD    SS SD/DD, printer port, master
Percom AT88-S2 PD    SS SD/DD dual drives, printer port, master
Rana 1000            SS SD/ED/DD, stand alone disk formatting
RCP 810              SS SD
San Jose Computer Special Edition 810  SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps
SWP ATR8000    4MHz Z80, 16K RAM, RS232, master, printer port
         or    4MHz Z80, 64K RAM, RS232, master, printer port, CP/M 2.2
               options:  128K or 256K CO-POWER-88 with MS-DOS; CP/M-86
TOMS 720      DS SD/ED/ID/DD/QD/ID printer port, MYDOS 4.50 on ROM, 70Kbps
     - SS/SD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 128 bytes = 90 KB
     - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 26 sects, 128 bytes = 130 KB
     - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 180 KB
     - SS/ID - IBM S-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 180 KB
     - DS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 360 KB
     - DS/QD - 80 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 720 KB
     - DS/ID - IBM D-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 360 KB
     - known as Toms-Turbo Drive, Turbo format and speeder is compatible
       with german Engl-Turbo-1050; (tools will work with both drives);
TOMS 710      DS SD/ED/ID/DD/QD/ID printer port, MYDOS 4.50 on ROM, 67Kbps
     one more format: double sided, 80 tracks, IBM (720 KB)
     also TOMS Navigator on ROM (like Norton Commander);
     known as Toms-Turbo drive; Turbo format and speeder is compatible
     with german Engl-Turbo-1050; (tools will also work with both drives);
Trak AT-1            SS SD/DD master.upgrade: printer port+4K/16K buffer
Trak AT-D1           SS SD master, printer port, 4K print buffer.upgrade:16K
Trak AT-D2           SS SD/DD master, printer port, 4K printbuffer.upgrade:16K
Trak AT-D4           DS SD/DD, printer port, print buffer
Trak Champ           SS SD master
Trak Champ2          SS SD/DD master
Trak AT-S1           SS SD/DD slave
XFD601B   DS SD/ED/DD 70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed,XF551 compat.
XFD602B  dual DS SD/ED/DD 70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed,XF551 compat

While any standard "slave" drive will work with "master" drives listed above,
the following are slave drives marketed specifically to Atari users:
Access Unlimited ATAR88-A1 SS SD slave
Access Unlimited ATAR40-A1 SS SD/DD slave
Concorde C-221S      SS SD/DD slave
Concorde C-222S      DS SD/DD slave
Percom RFD40-A1      SS SD/DD slave
Percom AT88-A1       SS SD/DD slave
RCP 100              DS SD/DD, slave
RCP 200              DS SD/DD dual drives, slave

The following information is taken from the documentation for HiassofT's
WriteAtr program, http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

Double-Sided drives for the Atari may use one of three different drive-
mapping possibilities.
   * Most double-sided Atari disk drives:
     First fill tracks 0-39 (or 0-79) on the first side, then switch
     over to side 2 and again fill tracks 0-39 (0-79 for 3.5" disks).

   * The XF551 first fills track 0 on the first side. Then it
     fills track 1, then track 2, ... up to track 39 (on a 5.25" disk)
     or 79 (on a 3.5" disk). Then it switches to side 2 and fills
     the disk in reverse order (starting at track 39/79, then 38/78,
     ... til it has reached the end of the disk at track 0).

   * The third possibility is the standard in the PC world, but on the Atari
     it's possibly unique to drives connected via the Karin Maxi interface.
     If your Atari disk drive uses this mapping, it first fills
     track 0 on side 1, then track 0 on side 2, then seeks to track 1,
     again first fills track 1 / side 1, then track 1 / side 2,
     and so on, until it finishes with track 39 (79) / side 2.
     The drive switches the heads (sides) first before switching
     the track.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.6) What kinds of 5.25" floppy disks can I use with my Atari drives?

Russ Gilbert writes:
If you're talking standard computer store, you can't use those 5 1/4" disks.
I mean you can't use high density disks.  They must be double density to use
with the 1050.  Almost all double density 5 1/4" disks have a hub ring, high
density disks don't have the hub ring.

RHamiIton5 elaborates: (5/12/01)
The Atari 8 drives do not have write heads and circuity which can handle the
type of oxide coating used on the high density floppy media; they cannot write
reliably to them. The hub ring has just become a sort of marker to distinguish
the high density from the standard double density diskettes.

Way back in your apple days of '79-'82, most disks were hubless and only the
really premium brands offered hubs to prevent slippage and out of round
problems; you could even buy little kits for adding you own hub rings.

When the home computer swell really hit around '83 and price wars began, hub
rings became common on good disks and eventually became standard down to
include most generic bargain diskettes.

The introduction of high density 5.25's required a different coercivity (=
magnetizability) to get more bits in a smaller space and suitable electronics
to do it. These disks were produced hubless; was it a differentiating label or
just unnecessary because of stronger mylar construction? Anyone?

------------------------------

Subject: 3.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks?

Lee Hart writes (January 2004):

Personally, I have several hundred floppy disks for my Atari 800, Kaypro
4, Heathkit H89, and IMSAI 8080 computers that are 10-20 years old.  What
I can say in general:

 - Most disks stored in plastic boxes or ziplock baggies survived.
 - Most disks stored in cardboard boxes or just their sleeves
   did NOT survive.
 - Some brands lasted better than others, but I haven't collated the
   information so as to make any kind of definitive statements.
 - If a disk cannot be read, CLEAN THE DISK DRIVE HEAD before attempting
   to read another disk! Otherwise, crap from the bad disk will remain
   on the head, and will scar and destroy any SUBSEQUENT disk you put
   in the drive! (the voice of painful experience).
 - For lack of a better plan, for each of my surviving disks I am:
        a. reformatting another blank disk
        b. copying the data from an old disk onto the blank disk
   Then I have a more recently-produced backup disk in case the
   original disk later fails.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.8) What hard drives were designed for my Atari?

Atari never produced hard drives for the 8-bit Atari, but the following
were produced and marketed to Atari users by third parties.

==> Corvus hard drive (5MB, 10MB, or 20MB)
(some Corvus info from an eBay auction by Ben Corr, 7/03)
Attaches via joystick ports 3 & 4 on the Atari 800 only.
  -- Corvus Integrator Board - alows access to the Corvus Disc without the
     Corvus software, so that any DOS that uses standard SIO calls will work.
  -- Corvus Multiplexer - used to network up to 8 Ataris to one Corvus Drive
  -- Corvus Mirror card - back up the drive's contents onto video tape

==> SupraDrive Atari Hard Disk, by Supra, later K-Products. 10MB or 20MB.
includes external Hard Disk Interface
Some limitations on drive type and size and total number of drives in sys.
Attaches via PBI, or ECI with adapter.
See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n6/Supradrivefor8Bit.html

==> BTL Hard Disk System
BTL 2001 Connector for 600XL/800XL PBI
BTL 2002 Connector for 130XE/800XE/65XE ECI
BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter
See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n12/BTLHardDisk.html

Most hard drives are connected to the Atari via a SCSI or IDE interface.
Such interfaces are covered in other sections of this FAQ List.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.9) How can my Atari utilize my PC's storage drives?

==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy

From the SIO2PC home page:

SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC
compatible computers.

The original idea was to have the PC emulate Atari disk drives so Atari
programs could be stored on the PC's hard (or floppy) drives.  It turned out
to be quite successful.  About 95% of my work was in the software, but a
hardware device to convert logic levels was also necessary.  This device is
now commonly referred to as an SIO2PC cable.

Features:
  -  Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives 
  -  Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives
  -  Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up
  -  No software or drivers required for the Atari; 
         no conflicts: use your favorite DOS 
  -  Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable
  -  Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain
  -  Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc.
  -  Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer
  -  Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa

http://www.cox-internet.com/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

Another source for various SIO2PC cable design plans is Clarence Dyson's page
at http://www.geocities.com/atarimods/atari.html


==> Atari810, by Dan Vernon
A disk drive emulator in the tradition of SIO2PC, for the Windows NT/2000/XP
platform.

http://retrobits.net/


==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

http://www.atarimax.com/


==> SIO2Linux, by Preston Crow

Pavel Machek made an initial attempt at communicating with the Atari through
an SIO2PC cable using Linux's serial port drivers. He came up with a simple
floppy emulator, femul.c.  I rewrote that to add a bunch of features:

* No kernel modules.
  Unlike the AtariSIO project, this is just a simple user-space program that
  uses a serial port device.
* Create new dynamically sized images
  Each image starts as a 3-sector image file, but grows to accomodate the
  highest-numbered sector written.
* Mount your native file system as an Atari disk
  It's read-only for now, and it doesn't support subdirectories, but each
  file is mapped to a different starting sector, and as that sector is read,
  it automatically maps in the rest of the file. 

http://www.crowcastle.net/preston/atari/

------------------------------

Subject: 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the 400/800
computers.

Atari 820 Printer:  ( print mechanism: Eaton 7000+ )
- 40-column impact printer
- 5x7 dot matrix
- 40 characters per line, upper & lower case alpha
- horizontal and vertical alphanumeric characters
- 6507 microprocessor, 6532 RAM I/O chip, 2K ROM
- 40 characters per second
- uses Standard Roll Paper/adding machine paper

Atari 822 Thermal Printer:   ( = Trendcom Model 100 )
- 37 characters per second
- 10 characters per inch
- 40 characters per line, upper/lower case and point graphics
- 5x7 dot matrix

Atari 825 80-Column Printer      ( = Centronics 737 )
- 3 character sets:
    monospaced 7x8 dot matrix at 10 characters per inch
    monospaced condensed at 16.7 cpi
    proportionately spaced Nx9 dot matrix at avg of 14 cpi (N=6..18)
- all characters can be elongated (printer double width)
- characters per line: 80 at 10 cpi; 132 at 16.7 cpi
- speed: 50 cps at 10 cpi; 83 cps at 16.7 cpi; 79 cps avg. proportional
- print buffer: 1200 dot columns
- paper: roll, fanfold, or cut sheets
- requires Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent 

------------------------------

Subject: 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the XL 
series computers.

Atari 1020 Color Printer: 
( = Commodore 1520 / Oric MCP40 / Tandy/Radio Shack CGP-115 /..; made by ALPS)
- 4-color graphics: (black, red, blue, green). optional 8-pen rainbow package
- alphanumberics and X,Y plotting capability
- 10 cps (40-column mode)
- 20, 40 and 80-column modes
- horizontal and vertical alphanumerics, English and International chr sets
- water soluble ink pen technology
- 4-pen barrel print head
- microprocessor
- paper: standard roll paper (40 column width)
- AtariGraphics cassette software included

Atari 1025 80-Column Printer:   ( = Okidata ML80 )
- 40 cps (80-column 10 cpi mode)
- 5 cpi expanded (40 col), 10 cpi (80 col), 16.7 cpi condensed (132-col)
- 5x7 character dot matrix
- buffer: 132 chrs at 16.7 cpi, 80 chrs at 10 cpi
- paper: roll,fanfold,single sheets. optional:roll paper holder, tractor feed

Atari 1027 Letter Quality Printer:     ( = Mannesmann Tally Riteman LQ.)
- fully formed characters, prestige elite 12)
- 12 characters per inch (80 columns)
- 20 characters per second
- single sheets or roll paper

Atari 1029 Programmable Printer    ( by Seikosha)
- 7-pin dot matrix, same as Commodore MPS-801
- Released for Europe & Canada (not USA)
- Rich_N_Feymus says:
     I think its a SEIKOSHA GP500, but not 100% sure. However, the
     Commodore MPS-801 ribbons should be much easier to find.
- The Tandy DMP 110 is another model reported to be the same as the 1029.

------------------------------

Subject: 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the XE 
series computers.

Atari XMM801 Printer:    ( = SHINWA CP80 )
- 80 columns, dot matrix
- friction feed or pin feed
- pica 10 cpi, double width pica 5 cpi, elite 12 cpi,double width elite 6 cpi,
  condensed 16.5 cpi, double width condensed 8.25 cpi
- Ribbon: Commodore 1526 and the Mannesman-Tally Spirit 80

Atari XDM121 Printer:
- 80 column, daisy wheel--letter quality
- underlining, subscripts, superscripts
- friction feed paper
- Ribbon: Silver Reed CF130, Olivetti ET201,ET221,Nu-Kote NK136

------------------------------

Subject: 4.4) What other printers can I use with my Atari?

Some third-party printers were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit
computers:

Alphacom 42 + Atari interface cartridge
- requires 850 Interface or equivalent
- thermal
- 4 1/2" width paper
- supports complete ATASCII character set

Axiom AT-100 / Seikosha AT-100 / Seikosha GP-100A Graphic Printer
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port for daisy-chain
- dot matrix
- early model 30-cps, later version 50 cps
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Axiom GP-550AT (by Seikosha)
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port
- dot matrix
- 86 cps draft, 43 cps NLQ
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Axiom GP-700AT (by Seikosha)
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port
- 4 hammer print heads, 4-color ribbon cartridge
- 25 colors
- 50 cps
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Epson HomeWriter 10 
- plug-in cartridge interface for the Atari
- 80 column dot-matrix printer 
- draft quality printing at 100 cps and near letter quality at 16 cps

General Electric GE 3-8100 / TXP 1000
- GE Printer Interface Module for Atari
- dot-matrix
- 50 cps draft, 25 cps NLQ

Okidata Okimate 10 Personal Color Printer
- available Plug 'n Print Interface for Atari
- a thermal printer. 
- single-sheet or tractor-feed paper.
- 26 colors
- 240 words per minutes

Beyond the above printer models, most any "industry-standard" line printer can
work well with the Atari.  For many years, most printers marketed for home use
could be classified into one of two categories: parallel or serial interface.
Parallel line printers were much more commonly used than serial line printers,
with the Epson MX/FX/LX series defining the market.

The most common way to use an industry standard printer with the Atari has
been to attach it through the 15-pin 8-bit parallel port of the Atari 850
Interface Module or equivalent (such as the ICD P:R: Connection).  One gotcha
here is that the 850's parallel port is DB15, where the PC world ended-up
standardizing on a DB25 configuration.  So you need to find or build a cable
that provides the DB15 connector for the Atari end (and Centronics-type
parallel connector on the printer end) when attaching a standard parallel
printer to the Atari through an Atari 850 or equivalent.

Many 3rd-party disk drives for the Atari (along with the XEP80 Interface
Module) do include a DB25 parallel printer port, rendering the need for an
Atari-specific printer cable unnecessary.

The Atari 850 Interface Module and equivalents also provide standard DB9
serial RS232C ports, permitting use of standard serial line printers with the
Atari.  But this is much less common than parallel, both in the Atari world
and in the industry at large.

Some folks have connected more modern inkjet and laser printers with parallel
connections to the 8-bit Atari with success.  Graphics printouts from the
Atari may be less than ideal (look for a printer with an Epson MX/FX/LX
printer series emulation mode), but these types of printers should work fine
for plain text output if they can handle simple line print jobs.

Bob Woolley wrote on Sun, 14 Apr 2002:
     I use HP LaserJet 4Ps on my Ataris. They are one of the last front panel
     selectable cheap printers - from which you can select your default fonts,
     etc. The newer laser printers can only set fonts and operating modes thru
     the interface, not impossible, but not as easy as selecting on the panel.
     This does allow you to print just about any point size of the internal
     fonts in the printer on your Atari. 
        
     Either way, you really have to do a little work to get properly formatted
     output from a word processor. I have managed to use the proportional font
     setting with AtariWriter and printer driver creation utilities to get good
     results.

Mathy van Nisselroy provides an AtariWriter printer driver for the HP LaserJet
here:  http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/special%20stuff.htm

Modern printers designed for "modern" PCs now normally utilize USB connectors
rather than the older standard Centronics parallel connector.

------------------------------

Subject: 4.5) How can my Atari utilize my PC's printer?

==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy

From the SIO2PC home page:

SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC
compatible computers.

The original idea was to have the PC emulate Atari disk drives so Atari
programs could be stored on the PC's hard (or floppy) drives.  It turned out
to be quite successful.  About 95% of my work was in the software, but a
hardware device to convert logic levels was also necessary.  This device is
now commonly referred to as an SIO2PC cable.

Features:
  -  Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives 
  -  Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives
  -  Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up
  -  No software or drivers required for the Atari; 
         no conflicts: use your favorite DOS 
  -  Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable
  -  Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain
  -  Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc.
  -  Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer
  -  Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa

http://www.cox-internet.com/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

Another source for building SIO2PC cables is Clarence Dyson's page at
http://www.geocities.com/atarimods/atari.html


==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

http://www.atarimax.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems?

A MODulator/DEModulator translates digital information from your computer into
acoustic tones that can be sent and received, from modem to modem, via
standard telephone lines.

Atari produced several modems for use with the 8-bit Atari computers:

Atari 830 Acoustic Modem:    ( = Novation 'CAT' )
- a stand-alone, acoustically coupled, frequency shift keying (FSK) modem
- up to 300 bits per second
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- requires Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent 

Atari 835 Direct Connect Modem:
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- pulse dialing
- 2 SIO ports
- packaged with the TeleLink II cartridge

Atari 1030 Direct Connect Modem:
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- built-in ModemLink software.
- 2 SIO ports

Atari XM301 Modem:
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- with XE Term disk software (developed by Russ Wetmore for Atari)
- permanent SIO cable, must be at end of SIO chain
- draws its power from the computer via SIO

Atari SX212 Modem:
- SIO & DB25 RS232 serial ports, must be at end of SIO chain
- 1200 baud
- Bell 103/113/212A modem compatible
- SX-Express! disk software (developed by Keith Ledbetter for Atari) sold
  separately, packaged with an SIO cable.
- Key engineer/desginer: Jose Valdes at Atari

------------------------------

Subject: 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari?

Some third-party modems were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit
computers:

==> Microconnection, by Microperipheral Corp. 
300 bps, Bell 103 compatible, T-SMART software, pulse dialing (not touch tone)
Four versions:
buss-decoding version does not require 850 Interface or equivalent, includes
    DB25 parallel printer interface, with or without autodial
Plain version requires 850 Interface or equivalent, with or without autodial
    and autoanswer 

==> MPP-1000C, by Microbits Peripheral Products 
300 baud, joystick port 2, Smart Terminal cartridge 
  
==> MPP-1000E, by Microbits Peripheral Products
300 baud, joystick port 2, Smart Term software 
 From: "Steven J Tucker" Sun, 13 Jan 2002 16:14:38 -0500
 The 1000E..had this strange problem in that it could never hang up the phone

==> MPP-1200A, by Microbits Peripheral Products
Released? Vaporware?
1200 bps, joystick port 2

==> 300 AT, by Supra (same as MPP-1000E)
300 baud, joystick port 2, Smart Term software

==> 1200 AT, by Supra
1200 baud, Hayes compatible, connects to SIO via SupraVerter/R-Verter cable,
Smart Terminal software

==> Volksmodem, by Anchor Automation
300 baud, 'F' Cable permits connection to joystick port 2

==> Q-MODEM, by Quantum Microsystems
300 baud, two SIO connectors, QuanTerm disk or cartridge

Beyond the above modem models, most any "industry-standard" external serial
modem can work well with the Atari.  These have been commonly sold for PCs for
many years.  The Hayes Smartmodem more or less defined the market for these,
initially.

One common way to use an industry standard external serial modem with the
Atari is to connect it to the SIO port via an Advanced Interface Devices
(A.I.D., later Supra) R-Verter Serial Bus Modem Adapter cable, or
equivalent.

The other common way to use an industry standard external serial modem with
the Atari is to attach it through the 9-pin RS232C serial port of the Atari
850 Interface Module or equivalent (such as the ICD P:R: Connection).  One
gotcha here is that the serial port on the 850 is DB9 female, where the PC
world ended up standardizing on a DB9 male connector for this purpose.  But
gender converters are readily available.

For using modems at speeds of 2400 bps and up with the Atari, it will be
useful to have an understanding of data flow control.  Here is a definition
of flow control from www.modems.com:

 Often, one modem in a connection is capable of sending data much faster than
 the other can receive.  Flow control allows the receiving modem to tell the
 other to pause while it catches up.  Flow control exists as either software,
 or XON/XOFF, flow control, or hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control.  With software
 flow control, when a modem needs to tell the other to pause, it sends a
 certain character, usually Control-S.  When it is ready to resume, it sends a
 different character, such as Control-Q.  Software flow control's only
 advantage is that it can use a serial cable with only three wires.  Since
 software flow control regulates transmissions by sending certain characters,
 line noise could generate the character commanding a pause, thus hanging the
 transfer until the proper character (such as Control-Q) is sent.  Also,
 binary files must never be sent using software flow control, as binary files
 can contain the control characters.  Hardware, or RTS/CTS, flow control uses
 wires in the modem cable or, in the case of internal modems, hardware in the
 modem. This is faster and much more reliable than software flow control.

Some 2400 bps modems, and probably all modems with 9600 bps speed capabilities
and up, normally use V.42 standard error correction and V.42bis standard data
compression.  But V.42 requires either software or hardware flow control, and
V.42bis requires hardware flow control (and V.42 error correction).

Hardware flow control is not available with the Atari 850 serial ports.

As a result, just before dialing out with your Atari telecom software, it's
usually desirable, if not necessary, to disable your modem's flow control.

The Hayes modem command to disable flow control looks like:
     AT&K0

The top speed of the Atari 850 serial ports is 9600 bps.

Clay Halliwell offers a tip on utilizing 9600 bps through the 850 Interface:
 On 11 Feb 1996, Marc G. Frank said:

 > I'm having problems getting a modem attached to my Atari 850 to
 > communicate at 9600 baud.  When I set my communications program to 2400
 > baud, everything works fine.  However, when I set it to 9600 baud, the
 > modem echoes my characters but doesn't act on them.  That is, at 2400,

 The problem with the 850 is that some of them (like mine) don't produce a
 PERFECT 9600 baud signal.  As a result modems can't train on it, and while
 they will echo characters back, for some nitpicky reason they won't pick up
 on the "AT" attention code.

 The solution is to do all your dialing at 2400 baud, but set the S37
 register to force the modem to try to connect at 9600.  Then switch your
 Atari to 9600 after connecting.
     
Through the use of an ICD MIO or a CSS Black Box, it is possible to utilize
modems at speeds up to 14.4 Kbps (V.32bis) at full speed with no loss of data.
The serial R: device handler for the Black Box supports hardware flow control
natively.  Optional for the Black Box, but essential for the MIO, is the
HyperSpeed handler by Len Spencer.

Hyperspd.arc is available at http://members.aol.com/lenspencer/atari8.htm

Modern external modems designed for "modern" PCs now normally utilize a USB
connector rather than the older standard DB9 RS232C serial connector.

------------------------------

Subject: 5.3) How can my Atari utilize my PC's modem/network?

==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

Greg Goodwin writes (2005):
Steven Tucker made this wonderful ability in the Windows version of Atari
Peripheral Emulator (APE, the program and cable that lets you make a PC an
Atari's bit...er..slave.  :D)  There is a great ability to tap into the PC's
Internet.  Bring up the APE program on the PC, BobTerm on the Atari, and
BobTerm will notice the Internet out there.  Now you can enter in a telnet
address and it will take you right to it.  Nice and basically cheap setup, and
great way to take advantage of the Internet setup on your PC.

http://www.atarimax.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari?

==> CSS Deluxe Quintopus
Share SIO devices between 2 computers.  The Deluxe Quintopus consists of a box
with two switched SIO ports and 4 unswitched SIO ports.

http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/quintopus.htm

==> Supra MicroNet
Supports the connection of one SIO chain of peripherals to up to 8 computers. 
When one computer accesses a peripheral device, the entire bus is occupied so
that the other computers on the "network" must wait.  The bus is freed five
seconds after a computer finishes interacting with the peripheral.

A printer/data buffer can make the MicroNet more practical.

Supra also provided a modified Atari DOS 2.5 that would re-try disk accesses
repeatedly in response to SIO timeouts.

http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n10/productreviews.html

==> CSS Multiplexer ("MUX")
Description from the CSS online catalog:

The Multiplexer is a collection of cartridge interface boards that allow up to
8 Ataris to read and write to the same drives (typically a hard disk), access
the same printer(s), and talk to each other.  It is the first practical
networking system for the Atari 8-bit computer.

One "master" computer (any 8-bit) is equipped with the master Multiplexer
interface.  Then up to 8 "slave" computers hook up to this master, each having
their own slave interface.  The slave interface consists of a cartridge that
plugs into the cartridge port.  It has its own socket on the top so you can
use
whatever cartridges you desire with the system.

The "common" peripherals (things that are to be shared) are connected to the
master.  On each slave, all disk and printer I/O is routed through the master
so no extra disk drives are needed.  The master computer can be configured in
any manner you wish.  You may have certain peripherals local to the slave or
routed to a different number on the master.  Note that serial ports (R: RS232
interfaces) are not multiplexed.  All slaves are independent and do not need
to
have the same program running on them.  

http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/multiplexer.htm

==> GameLink and GameLink II
This text by Andreas Magenheimer:

In the late 80`s and early 90`s Chuck Steinman and Jeff Potter ("The ADGA
Group") developed some networking-computer-hardware to link two or more Ataris
together, so that multiplayer games are possible, where each user has its own
computer and tv/monitor screen. The hardware was/is computer independant and
will run fine on any Atari 8Bit computer (whereas most software for it will
only work on XL/XE computers). During a 3-4 year period of development two
different hardware add-ons were developed:

a) Gamelink-1: This hardware was developed in 1989/90. It links two
   computers together via the joystick ports. It is limited to a maximum
   of 2 computers and thus 2 or 6 players, meaning one free port per
   XL/XE computer and 3 free ports per 400/800 computer. However, the
   few existing games for this hardware merely support 2 players, no
   matter, which computer you have...

b) Gamelink-2: This hardware was developed in 1991/92. It links 2 to 8
   computers together via the SIO-port. One computer will then act as
   the master and has to boot up the software (from tape, disk, harddisk,
   etc.) first. Then all other "slave" computers connect to it and boot
   off of this master computer (one after another of course). In Europe
   we call this device "Multilink", mostly because of the games written
   by Bewesoft (Jiri Bernasek) called Multi-Dash, Multi-Race, Multi-Worms.
   A two-computer link-network can easily be done with one SIO cable, just
   open the end of the SIO cable and exchange cables number 3 and 5. You
   now have an easy two-computer (2-4 players) network-cable.
 
For some available software, that supports this networking-computer
hardware, see 8.16 which programs support networking computer hardware...

------------------------------

Subject: 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network?

Marius Diepenhorst has pioneered the following technique.  He writes (2004):

"Try to get a LANTRONIX UDS-10 device.  It acts like a modem but it is a LAN
-> RS232 converter.  So with that device you can have incoming and outgoing
'calls' like modem ones via the internet.

I ran my Atari 8bit bbs with such a thing. The Lantronix MSS-10 or MSS-100
will do too.  But in that case you have to make a custom rs232 cable (easy
job).

More info www.lantronix.com

this is the info of the UDS-10

www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/uds-10.html

It is REALLY a cool thing. Not only for you, but for more atari fans I guess."

Technical details for his BBS: http://atari-inside.webhop.net/ or 
http://home.planet.nl/~diepe534/ainside/ainside.htm

Other, similar serial-to-Ethernet interfaces from Lantronix have been
successfully utilitized, including the MSS100:
www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/mss100.html

as well as the discontinued MSS1-T.

Note that the UDS-10 lacks DNS support, while the MSS100 and MSS1-T include
DNS support.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module?

While the Atari's SIO and controller ports did not conform to established
industry standards, Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to address this
issue.  The 850 connects to the SIO port on the Atari, and provides:

- four 9-pin serial EIA RS232C ports
- One 15-pin 8-bit parallel Centronics-type port

Many "industry standard" (of the time) printers, modems, and various other
devices can be used with the Atari computer in combination with an 850
Interface Module.

Very early 850's are in an all black brushed steel case, but most are in a
beige plastic case matching the 400/800 computers.  Other features:
- programmable baud rate on any port, including:
  75, 110, 134.5, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 4800, and 9600 bps;
  baudot speeds of 60, 66, 75, 100 words per minute
- uses standard ASCII. Baudot support for radio-teletype (RTTY).

PINOUTS

850 R1: Serial port DB9P:
  5         1
   o o o o o
    o o o o
   9       6                           ______________________________________
                                      / DB25P standard connector equivalents:
1. DTR - Data Terminal Ready    (out) +  20
2. CRX - Signal (carrier) Detect (in) +  8
3. XMT - Transmitted Data       (out) +  2
4. RCV - Received Data           (in) +  3
5. GND - Signal Ground                +  7
6. DSR - Data Set Ready          (in) +  6
7. RTS - Request to Send        (out) +  4
8. CTS - Clear to Send           (in) +  5
No connection to shield               + Frame - to the shield wire

850 R2: Serial port DB9P:
  5         1   1. DTR
   o o o o o    3. Send Data
    o o o o     4. Receive Data
   9       6    5. Signal Ground
                6. DSR

850 R3: Serial port DB9P:
                1. DTR 
  5         1   3. Send Data
   o o o o o    4. Receive
    o o o o     5. Signal Ground
   9       6    7. RTS
                8. -8 Volts

850 R4: Serial port DB9P:
  5         1   1. Send Data +
   o o o o o    3. Send Data -
    o o o o     7. Receive Data +
   9       6    9. Receive Data - (20 mA)

850 P: Parallel port DB15P:
 8               1
  o o o o o o o o
   o o o o o o o
 15             9             ______________________________________
                             / 36 pin Centronics (male) equivalents:
1. Data Strobe               +   1
2. D0                        +   2
3. D1                        +   3
4. D2                        +   4
5. D3                        +   5
6. D4                        +   6
7. D5                        +   7
8. D6                        +   8
9. Data Pull up (+5v)        +
10. -                        +
11. Ground                   +  16
12. Fault                    +  32
13. Busy                     +  11
14. -                        +
15. D7                       +   9
No connection to shield      + Frame - to the shield wire

Because the 850 was relatively expensive, provided more capabilities than the
average user was looking for, and was at times unavailable from Atari despite
high demand, there were many 3rd-party interfaces designed to provide some
compatible subset of the 850's features.  Perhaps the most prominent example
of such a product is the P:R: Connection from ICD.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?

This text written by Thomas Raukamp.

Since the development of the Atari 8-bit line of computers in 1979, users
wanted better text displays than the default 40x24.  There has been some
attempts to satisfy this need, like the Austin-Franklin board or the Ace
80/80xl cartridge.  For more informations about these modifications read The
Atari 8-bit Hardware Upgrade FAQ from David A. Paterson.
 
The Atari XEP80 Interface Module is Atari's entry to the 80 column field.  It
lets a XL, XE, 400 or 800 computer system display a full 80 columns across
your monitor screen.  The XEP80 provides a 256-character wide by 25-line
display window.  Up to 80 characters are displayed horizontally at once, and
you can scroll horizontally all the way to the 256th character, depending on
the application you're running.  The XEP80 is connected to your system via a
joystick port.
 
The XEP80 Module interprets commands from the computer for screen display or
output to a printer.  The module is supplied with an industry-standard 8-bit
parallel port so you can connect a parallel printer to your Atari 8-bit (I
even use a HP LaserJet IV on my 130XE ;) ).
 
All programs that use the standard screen call (E:) should be compatible with
the XEP80 Module.  The software provided by Atari supports a 320x200 graphics
mode - this mode only support direct bit images.  Note that you can't use all
of the standard graphic capabilities of the Atari anymore.
 
Although Atari recommends a monochrome monitor for usage with the XEP80, it
runs fine with any type of composite monitor.  The output looks great on my
Commodore 1084 for example.
 
Along with the module comes a software-package containing an AUTORUN.SYS file,
which is the XEP80 handler.  If you want to use the module with an application
that is compatible with the XEP80, which has it's own AUTORUN.SYS file, you
can append the application's AUTORUN.SYS on the module's AUTORUN.SYS.
***********************
The key engineer/designer of the XEP80 was Jose Valdes at Atari.
Lane Winner was software developer for the XEP80 at Atari.

Editors for the XEP80:
 - AtariWriter 80 by Atari
 - TurboWord by MicroMiser
 - emacs subset by Stan Lackey
 - MAE and its previous standalone editor ED

XEP80 P: Parallel port:
   13                         1
     o o o o o o o o o o o o o
      o o o o o o o o o o o o
    25                       14
    1. Strobe
  2-9. Parallel Data
   10. Not Used
   11. Busy
12-17. Not Used
18-25. Ground

------------------------------

Subject: 6.3) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari?

SCSI background from http://www.ioiscsi.com/library/library_scsi.html
and http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=scsi

SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface.  Pronounced "scuzzy."              
                         
SCSI is an ANSI standard for connection peripherals/devices to your computer
via a hardware interface, which uses standard SCSI commands. 

In the early 1980's, Adaptec's founders, while at disk drive manufacturer
Shugart Associates, developed a parallel I/O interface called SASI for Shugart
Associated System Interface.  When this specification was finalized, it was
released to several different manufacturers and enjoyed commercial success.
In 1982, SASI was presented to ANSI as a basis for standard.  Because of the
commercial success and widespread market use of SASI, ANSI formalized and
extended the SASI specification and changed the name to SCSI (in part to
separate the specification from any one vendor in particular).  In June 1986,
SCSI was formally adopted by ANSI.

The following hardware interface devices allow SASI/SCSI devices (such as hard
disk drives) to be connected to the Atari:

==> ICD Multi I/O (MIO)
- Parallel printer interface 
- Serial interface, for modem or serial printer.  will handle 19.2Kbps
- 256K or 1 MB RAM, for RAMdisk or printer spooler
- SASI/SCSI interface, supports up to 8 controllers.
- Limited to drives with 256-byte sectors.
Attaches via PBI, or ECI with adapter.

==> CSS Black Box
- RS-232 Serial Modem Port (19.2Kbps) w/ hardware flow control 
- Parallel Printer Port
- SASI/SCSI Hard Disk Port
- Operating System Enhancements
- optional 64K printer buffer
- Supports drives with 512-byte sectors
PBI/ECI device.
Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/black.htm

Mathy van Nisselroy's Black Box page:
http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/blackbox.htm


ASPI - Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
Originally developed by Adaptec.  It is a software layer that enables programs
to communicate with SCSI (and ATAPI) devices.

Mathy van Nisselroy's Atari ASPI page:
http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/aspi.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 6.4) How can I use an IDE device with my Atari?

IDE background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=ide

IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics

IDE is a type of hardware interface widely used to connect hard disks, CD-ROMs
and tape drives to a PC.  IDE was always the more economical interface,
compared to SCSI. 

With IDE, the controller electronics are built into the drive itself,
requiring a simple circuit in the PC for connection.  IDE drives were attached
to earlier PCs using an IDE host adapter card.  Today, two Enhanced IDE (EIDE)
sockets are built onto the motherboard, and each socket connects up to two
drives via a 40-pin ribbon cable for CD-ROMs and similar devices and an 80-
wire cable for fast hard disks.

IDE drives are configured as master and slave.  Jumper pins on the drive
itself are used to set up the first drive on the cable as master and the
second one, if present, as a slave.

The IDE interface is officially known as the ATA (AT Attachment)
specification.  ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface) defines the IDE standard for CD-
ROMs and tape drives.  ATA-2 (Fast ATA) defined the faster transfer rates used
in Enhanced IDE (EIDE). 

The following hardware interface devices allow IDE devices (such as hard disk
drives) to be connected to the Atari:

==> SmartIDE project by Bob Woolley
Uses 256 of the normal 512 byte sectors.  Point-to-point wiring project. 
Articles and software at http://www.geocities.com/atarimods/atari.html
(Atari page by Clarence Dyson)

==> KMK/JZ IDE Hard Drive Interface
by Jacek Zuk and Konrad Kokoszkiewicz (Draco)
KMK writes (March 2005):
  This is sort of cartridge fitting in ECI+CARTRIDGE slot in XE computers. 
  The box is about 1,5 cm high, 15 cm long, and its width is less or more 
  equal to the XE ECI+CARTRIDGE slot. You have an ECI+CARTRIDGE connector 
  at one end, and an IDE cable at the other end. The whole is cased with 
  black plastic case.
  What advantage does it have over similar products?
  1) it is available and still being made;
  2) the software is maintained, you can download an upgrade for the 
     internal handler, for example;
  3) it uses a well defined Atari parallel bus interface, thus no OS 
     modifications or other hacks are necessary to get the machine booting 
     from this device;
  4) it works fine with unmodified SpartaDOS X, SpartaDOS 3.x, MyDOS (and 
     other DOS-es, but using it with DOS 2.x lacks sense);
  5) it allows you to make true partitions (up to 16);
  6) it can currently address up to 8 GB (and this is not a hardware 
     limit, so an upgraded internal ROM can do more);
  7) it works with all devices which are ATA-compliant;
  8) you can use two drives (master/slave);
The Interface's internal software provides two modes: native and emulation.
The native mode uses a 512 byte physical block as a logical data sector, the
emulation mode uses the physical block to store two 256 byte logical data
sectors.  ALL existing DOSes require the emulation mode to work properly.
Maximum drive capacity: 8388607 physical blocks on each device.
Maximum number of partitions: 16
Maximum capacity of a partition: 8388607 logical sectors
Logical sector length:  256 or 512 bytes
Average speed: 58 kilobytes per second (native mode, R/W)
               32 kilobytes per second (emulation mode, reading)
               7 kilobytes per second (emulation mode, writing)
Booting from any partition
Write protection capability
8 jumpers to set the device number for the operating system
Note, that ALL existing DOSes limit the partition size to 16 MB.
Available: E-mail to: jurekQrembertow.net (q = @)
User's Manual and software downloads: 
http://drac030.krap.pl/  or  http://drac030.atari8.info/

==> Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) Multi I/O II (MIO II) interface
An IDE interface.  Several exist, but it was never really released

==> msc-IDE Controller, by Matthias Belitz
*  real device for the parallel-port (PBI/ECI) of the Atari XL/XE 
*  up to 240 partitions per harddisk supported 
*  emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions at one time)
*  full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS) 
*  write protectition capability 
*  supports master/slave configuration 
*  more than 30 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading) 
*  more than 10 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing) 
*  software partially supports CD-ROM and ZIP drives.
Sold out.  http://www.birmanns.de/atari/

==> Gary Morton's BadSector"A" Project
 Wants to connect his IDE drive to the SIO bus.
 http://www.alma.demon.co.uk/Atari/AtariProjects.html
 
==> MyIDE interface and software by Mr.Atari, Sijmen Schouten
Point-to-point wiring project.  Different units for 800 and XL, including a
cartridge version for the XL.
http://www.mr-atari.com/

==> Atarimax "MyIDE+Flash" Cartridge
Atarimax "MyIDE+Flash" Cartridge is a professionally produced IDE interface
cartridge for all 64k Atari 8-bit computers.

The new MyIDE+Flash interface combines Sijmen "Mr. Atari" Schouten's popular
"MyIDE" interface with an Atarimax 1Mbit reprogrammable flash cartridge.

The cartridge's built in 1Mbit flash system allows you to utilize the
interface and your hard disk setup in any 64k XL/XE computer, using the built-
in boot OS, without modifications to the existing hardware or operating
system.
http://www.atarimax.com/myide/documentation/

==> SIO2IDE, by Marek Mikolajewski (MMSoft)
     The SIO2IDE is a simple interface that allows you to attach any IDE
  Disk Drive to your 8-bit Atari computer. Latest interface version has the
  following main features:
      * ATARI side:
        - uses standard Atari SIO at a speed of 19200 baud
        - works with Atari High Speed SIO (US and Happy) at a speed of 52000
          baud
        - emulates Atari disks D1: to D8:
          disk D1: can be swaped with Common disk D1: (HD1_ZW jumper)
        - can be used with any Atari DOS and OS
        - can be used without any problems with other SIO devices (disk
          drivers, printers, modems, SIO2PC, second SIO2IDE etc)
        - can be easy installed inside your Atari with 2.5' laptop HD
        - is easy to configure via special fdisk.com utility software
          (changing disks sequence and active directory)
      * IDE device side:
        - all IDE ATA/ATAPI devices can be used: Disk Drives (2.5' and 3.5'),
          CD-ROMs, Compact Flash cards etc.
        - supports PC file systems, FAT16 and FAT32
        - supports CD file system, ISO9660
        - supports ATR disk images (SD, DD up to 16MB)
        - supports directory change (multiconfig)
        - is easy to configure, many text configuration files (sio2ide.cfg)
          can be stored in different directories
        - disk configuration can be checked by special checkfs.exe PC utility
          NOTE: checkfs.exe does NOT work with HDD connected via USB port
        - standard disk utilities can be used (defrag.exe, scandisk.exe etc)
        - Long File Name (LFN) support for HDD
        - TEST mode for checking HDD initialisation
      * USB port side:
        - interface works as Mass Storage Class device (removable drive)
        - no drivers are needed for Windows 2K, ME, XP
        - driver for Win98 is included in this SIO2IDE package
http://atariarea.histeria.pl/sio2ide/

==> Nathan Hartwell's IDE projects
http://www.magelair.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 6.5) Can I attach an ISA card to my Atari?

ISA background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=isa

ISA - Industry Standard Architecture.  Pronounced "eye-suh." 

An expansion bus formerly commonly used in PCs (but since phased-out in favor
of PCI).  It accepts plug-in boards that control the sound, video display and
other peripherals. 

Originally called the "AT bus," it was first used in the IBM AT, extending the
8-bit bus to 16 bits.

RoBu (Roland Buhler) of the Stuttgart ABBUC Regional Group has produced
project plans for an ISA-Bus Interface for Atari 800XL/130XE Computer, ARGS.
http://www.stud.uni-karlsruhe.de/~un55/Hardware/ISA-Interface/ReadME.html

Carsten Strotmann has released sourcecode showing how to access a Hercules
video card with the ISA-Bus Interface.
http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/PgmFardwDriverHerc

------------------------------

Subject: 6.6) How can I use a USB device with my Atari?

Background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=usb

USB - Universal Serial Bus

A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse,
joystick, scanner, printer and telephony devices.  USB has a maximum bandwidth
of 12 Mbits/sec (equivalent to 1.5 Mbytes/sec), and up to 127 devices can be
attached. 

USB ports began to appear on PCs in 1997.  It has now esentially replaced the
older RS232 serial and Centronics-type parallel ports on modern PCs, and USB
has become the primary means for connecting most external devices to today's
computers.  

The following project aims to provide USB compatability to the Atari:

MicroUSB.org - Microprocessor USB Project, http://microusb.org/
Project USB Cartridge
    * Project Name  : USB Cartridge with two USB Slots
    * Project Start : Summer 2002
    * Project Member: Marc Brings, Thomas Grasel, Harry Reminder,
                      Guus Assmann, Carsten Strotmann
http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/Microusb/ProjUSBCart

In cooperation with the above,

Atarimax(Steven Tucker)/ABBUC USB Cartridge:
http://www.atarimax.com/usbcart/

------------------------------

Subject: 6.7) What are the power requirements for my Atari components?

Thanks to Matthias Belitz for the European data in this section.  I need more
international help!

As with the rest of this FAQ list, please let me know if any of this
information conflicts with the units you have.

The most important information is the voltage (in volts) required, and
whether you need a transformer (AC output) or an adapter (DC output). 
The power (in voltamps or watts) and current (in amperes) specifications
of the original equipment as presented here should be regarded as
minimum values.  Higher-than-specified power and current capacities are
entirely usable, and often preferable because such supplies run cooler
and last longer.

Direct Current (DC):
Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)

Alternating Current (AC):
Apparent Power (in voltamps) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)
Effective/True Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)
                                  * (cosine of the angle of lag)

N O R T H  A M E R I C A   INPUT = 115-120 V AC, 50/60Hz
========================
AC supplies (external transformers)
  9 V AC  5.4 VA  (600 mA)  Atari#CO62195/CO17539
    1030

  9 V AC  4.5 VA  (500 mA)  Atari#CO61516
    1010

  9 V AC  15.3 VA  (1.7 A)  Atari#CO14319
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL

  9 V AC  18 VA  (2.0 A)  Atari#CA014748/CA016804
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810

  9 V AC  31 VA  (3.4 A)  Atari#CO17945
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810,1020,1050,XF551

  9 V AC  50 VA  (5.6 A)  Atari#CA017964
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810,1020,1050,XF551

  9.5 V AC  40 VA  (4.2 A)  Atari#CO61636
    1027,1090XL

  20 V AC  6.6 VA  (330 mA)  Atari#CO60479/CA060535
    835

  20 VAC  8 VA  (400 mA)  Novation#901017
    830
    
  24 V AC  3.6 VA  (150 mA)  Atari#CA016751
    830

DC supplies (external adapters)
  5 V DC  1.0 A  (5.0 W)  Atari#CO70042
    600XL,65XE,XE Game System

  5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CO61982/CA024814
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Game System
    4 varieties, detailed by Ben Poehland in Current Notes v10n9 Nov 1990:
    Type I: The Beauty Queen, 1983-84, made in Hong Kong 
            matches XL hardware, repairs easy
    Type II: The Ugly Clunker, 1984-85, made in Taiwan 
            all black, external RF interference supression box,
            entirely permanently sealed, unrepairable
    Type III: The Black Beauty, 1985, made in Taiwan, uncommon
              like Type I but all black, simplest design/easiest repairs
    Type IV: The Peanut, 1985-?, made in Taiwan
             black with silver plate, difficult/tedious repairs

  6 V DC  300 mA  (1.8 W)  Atari#???????
    "410P"

  9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 W)  Atari#CO16353/CA014034/CO10472/CX261
    XEP80,SX212,2600 (center positive)

  9.3 V DC  1.93 A  (18 W)  Atari#CO18187
    Indus GT,5200

  11.5 V DC  1.95 A  (22 W)  Atari#CA019141
    Indus GT,5200

  5 V / 12 V DC  1.1 A  (5.5 W / 13.2 W)  Atari#CO62297/DV1450
    1400XL,1450XLD


E U R O P E  (and elsewhere?)   INPUT = 220/240 V AC, 50 Hz
=============================
AC supplies (external transformers)
  9 V AC  4.5 VA  (0.5 A)  Atari#CO61516/34  (UK)
    1010 

  9.3 V AC  15.44 VA  (1,66 A)  (Atari# not printed)/FW 6799
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL

  9 V AC  27 VA  (3.0 A)  Atari#CO60592-34  (UK)
    400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810,1020,1050,XF551

DC supplies (external adapters)
  5 V DC  1.8 A  (9.0 W)  Atari#CO61763-107
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE Game System

  5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CO61763-34  (UK)
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE Game System

  5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CO61763-11
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE Game System
    two ones with the same part number, but different cases and different
    input Values :#1, 65XE (Poland, made in Taiwan), Input 22 VA
                  #2, 800XL, Input 26 VA

  8.5 V DC                Atari#CO61605
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE Game System


M O R E  I N F O
================
These draw their power from the SIO +5 V:
  XM301 (60 mA),XC11,XC12,ICD P:R: Connection,Wizztronics MidiMax,R-Verter

Draws power from the 600XL PBI:
  1064

These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the wall):
  410 (except "410P"),815,820,825,1025,1029,XMM801,XDM121

OTHER:
The ICD Multi I/O (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and DC supplies, BUT:
     stick to voltages of at least 6.2-7.2 V.
     On 2003.09.01 James Bradford wrote: "Doesn't matter what polarity the
     centre is, the MIO has a fullwave bridge rectifer in it.
     AC would be better because the diodes would be used half the time."
Indus GT: see Atari#CO18187 or CA019141 above.  What happens if power
     supplies for the Atari 1050 and Indus GT are mixed?  Paul Alhart writes
     (20 Jan 2004): "The Indus requires DC, the 1050 uses AC. Plug an Indus
     supply into a 1050 and it will usually blow the rectifier diodes in the
     1050. Plug an Atari supply into an Indus and it will blow the fuse in
     the supply. It can damage the mother board as well."
Rana 1000: 9 VAC   3.4 AMPS
MPP1000C modem:  9 V DC  200 mA  (1.8 W)

------------------------------

Subject: 6.8) What accessories did Atari produce for their 8-bit computers?

This should be a complete list of Atari "CX" accessories, two or three digit
numbers, marketed for use with the 8-bit computers.

CX30-04 Paddle Controller Pair
CX40-04 Joystick Controller Pair
CX40 Single Joystick Controller
CX41 Joystick Repair Kit
CX22 Trak-Ball Controller
CX23 Kid's Controller
CX24 Pro-Line Joystick
CX42 Remote Control Wireless Joysticks
CX50 Keyboard Controller Pair
CX70 Light Pen (beige; the original Atari light pen)
CX75 Light Pen ( + Atarigraphics cartridge)
CX77 Touch Tablet ( + AtariArtist cartridge)
CX78 Joypad (shipped with the 7800 in Europe)
CX80 Trak-Ball
CX81 I/O Data Cord (5 ft)
CX82 Monitor Cable (black and white monitor)
CX85 Numerical Keypad ( + software Handler on diskette)
CX86 Printer Cable (included with 825 Printer)
CX87 Interface/Modem Cable (included with 830 Acoustic Modem)
CX88 Interface/Terminal Cable (null modem)
CX89 Monitor Cable (color monitor)
CX418 The Home Manager Kit (The Home Filing Manager disk +
       (Personal Financial Management System disk or Family Finances disk))
CX419 The Bookkeeper Kit/The Atari Accountant (The Bookkeeper disk + CX85)
CX481 The Entertainer (Star Raiders + (Computer Chess or Missile Command or
      Pac-Man) + 2 joysticks).  Atari computer product catalogs first mention
      Missile Command, then Pac-Man as the second game.  Text on the box
      itself (thanks Bill Demian) indicates Computer Chess as the second
      game.  The illustration on the box actually shows a Music Composer box
      underneath the Star Raiders box.
CX482 The Educator (410 + BASIC cart. + States & Capitals cassette)
CX483 The Programmer (BASIC + BASIC Ref Manual + BASIC Self-Teaching Guide)
CX484 The Communicator (850 Interface + 830 Acoustic Modem + TeleLink I cart)
CX488 The Communicator II (835 Direct Connect Modem + TeleLink II cart.)
????? The Arcade Champ (Pac-Man + Qix + 2 joysticks + cartridge storage case)
????? The BASIC Tutor I (Inside Atari BASIC book + An Invitation to
      Programming 2: Writing Programs One and Two cassette + An Invitation to
      Programming 3: Introduction to Sound and Graphics cassette)
CX852 8K RAM Memory Module (for 800 computer)
CX853 16K RAM Memory Module (for 800 computer)
XG-1 Light Gun ( + Bug Hunt cart.)

------------------------------

Subject: 6.9) What preventative maintenance can I do on my Atari system?

This new section could use more contributions!  For starters, Russ Gilbert
writes (2004.11.05):

The main suggestion I have is to use your A8s. This keeps the keyboard
working.  I didn't have a problem with my 800XLs, but my 1200XLs required
typing the keys a bunch to get them to respond to every keypress.  USE YOUR
A8s.

The problem, I suspect, is oxidation of contacts, in the keyboard, at the
cartridge slot, maybe the SIO port.  Use of a soft eraser on cart edge
connector is one thing I think helps.

I would guess one could take the 1200XL keyboard apart and clean the mylar
traces with ???  90% isopropyl alcohol and a Q-Tip.  I still have my
original 800XL, it has copper switches in the keyboard, no mylar.  I don't
know what my 800s have in the keyboard, but I would guess copper switches.
My original 800XL has all socketed chips also.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.10) What graphic tablets were produced for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Atari Touch Tablet by Atari (came with Atari Artist cart., Micro
  Illustrator compatible),
- Koala Pad by Koala Industries (came with Koala/Micro Illustrator
  cart.);
- Powerpad by Chalkboard Inc. (came without software!); the following
  carts were available separately for the Powerpad: Micro Illustrator,
  Leo's Lectric, Micro Maestro, The Programmers Kit, Logic Games, Bear 
  Jam (as refered to Antic, September 1984);
- Animation Station by Suncom (came with Micro-Illustrator cart.);

------------------------------

Subject: 6.11) What lightpens were produced for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Atari Lightpen (came with Atari Graphics cart.; it produces pictures
  with 127 sectors in length, thus not Micro-Painter, nor Micro-
  Illustrator compatible; however appropriate converter programs can be
  found in the public domain, e.g. the Rapid Graphics Converter);
- Edumate Lightpen (came with a disk with 6 Basic programs; a program
  called Peripheral Vision was available separately from Future House);
- Tech-Sketch-Lightpen (came in two versions: a) the cheaper version
  which included a disk with Basic programs only and b) the more expensive
  version which included the disk with Basic programs and the Micro-
  Illustrator cartridge);
- MC-Pen-Lightpen (came with a disk with 4 Basic programs);
- Reston Lightpen (came with ???);

Note: these infos were taken from Antic, September 1984; I am not sure,
if all these items were really available as listed...

------------------------------

Subject: 6.12) What lightguns were produced for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Atari XG-1 Lightgun (came in two versions: a) complete with XEGS,
  keyboard, joystick, power supply, tv-cable, Lightgun, FS II cart and
  Bug Hunt cart all in one package and b) in a separate package, 
  containing the Lightgun and the Bug Hunt cartridge); thats's why Bug 
  Hunt does not have its own package, it was always included with the 
  Lightgun package and/or the complete XEGS package...
- BEST Lightgun by Best Electronics (a sort of selfmade (?) Lightgun);
- Sega-Lightgun (normally not Atari compatible; but can be converted
  into an Atari compatible lightgun easily);
- other lightguns (most of these have to be converted)...

Note: After having 3-4 Atari and at least one (converted) Sega lightgun,
it is my personal impression, that the Atari lightgun merely works ok 
on/with TV-sets (and not at all with a monitor), whereas the Sega lightgun
works alright on TV's and (most) monitors. Since I never had a Best
lightgun I cannot comment on this one... (Andreas Magenheimer);

------------------------------

Subject: 6.13) What paddles were produced for the Atari?  

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Atari Paddles (usually a pair of Paddles);
- Telegames Paddles (available as a) a single paddle and b) a pair 
  of paddles);
- Reston Paddles (available as a) a single paddle and b) a pair 
  of paddles);
- and many others...

Note: Both single and duo (pair) paddles are compatible to each other,
using only one port-connector (only one joystick port). Thus, with a pair 
of paddles you can connect up to 4 paddles (2 pairs) to the XL/XE models
and up to 8 paddles (4 pairs) to the Atari 400/800 models.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.14) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the
Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Voice-Box II by The Alien Group (a software and hardware package);
- 1400XL/1450XLD Voice Synthesizer (built-in chip inside the extreme rare
  Atari 1400XL/1450XLD models);
- Talk is Cheap by Ed Stewart, Antic Volume 2 Number 4, July 1983,
  pages 64-66; hardware schematics only (a test/demo program is
  mentioned in the text, but not printed in the magazine!);
- Cheap-Talk by Lee Brilliant, Analog Computing, issue 29, April 1985,
  pages 59-67; hardware schematics and software demos, for example 
  "First Words");
- many other voice synthesizers (mostly selfmade and based on a chip by 
  National Semi Conductor);

------------------------------

Subject: 6.15) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Parrot (2-Bit) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos;
- Parrot-2 (2-Bit or 4-Bit?) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos;
- 2-Bit Replay (2-Bit) by 2Bit-Systems Ltd.
- Sound N'Sampler (2-Bit) by Ralf David;
- Sound Digitiser (2-Bit) by Ralf David;
- Sound-Meister (2-Bit) by Irata;
- Sound-Digitizer (2-Bit) by Irata;
- Digitales Mikrofon (2-Bit) by Compyshop;
- Voice-Master (2-Bit) by Covox Inc.;
- Analog-Sample-Processor (2-Bit) by Steven Lashower (Analog Magazine);
- Atari-Sound-Sampler (2-Bit) by Andreas Binner and Harald Schoenfeld 
  (german Atari magazin 1/1989, pages 44-49, complete with schematics,
   documentation, sample-program and assembler-source);
- Alphasys-Sound-Sampler cart. (4-Bit) by ANG/Mirage (released as a mono
  version; a stereo (two Pokeys!) version was promised/planned, but afaik
  never released);
- ARGS-XE-Sampler (8-Bit) by ABBUC regional group ARGS (only one or
  two prototypes exist, alas the hardware was never released due to lack
  of (sampling/digitizing) software; maybe a good idea for the hardware
  and software experts out there!);
- and many others ...

------------------------------

Subject: 6.16) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

a) enhancements for stereo-sound:

- POPS, polyphonic-pokey-sound by Lee Brilliant (stereo-support with one
  Pokey!); refer to Analog Computing, issue 66, november 1988, pages 
  54-60; only 1-2 programs exist for this mod., see: 8.14 stereo-software
  for the Atari;

- stereo with two Ataris (and thus 2 Pokey chips); use computer/pokey 1
  for the left channel and computer/pokey 2 for the right; no special
  hardware required for this trick (but specially programmed software!);
  see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari;

- stereo with 2 Pokey chips (in one Atari!); refer to an article written
  by Chuck Steinman (which probably appeared in Atari classic?) on how 
  to upgrade your Atari internally with a second Pokey chip; or ask 
  Freddy Offenga for a deluxe-stereo-version, that uses a PCB instead of 
  the piggy-back method. For a list of software that supports this mod. 
  see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari;

- Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser by Portronic/AMC-Verlag, these were
  hardware add-ons that connected via the monitor jack to the Atari and
  gave you "another" monitor jack and 2 cinch connectors to connect to
  the monitor and/or the hifi-system; various small paddles (4-10,
  depending on the model you have) make it possible to change amplitudes,
  frequencies, etc. and thus generate a "pseudo-stereo" sound. These
  add-ons also amplified the sound and thus made quality recordings of
  Atari sounds much easier. Alas, these hardware add-ons were quite
  expensive and thus not many (less than 100) were sold. Therefore no
  special software is required, every A8 sound can be changed or 
  enhanced to "simulated-stereo"...

- Stereo-Blaster-Pro, a hardware add-on by Portronic/AMC-Verlag similar
  to Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser, but programmable! This add-on had
  only 1 small paddle, to amplify the sound-volume; the stereo-sound 
  could be generated via two simple Poke-Statements, a demo-disk therefore
  was included. Alas, not many items were sold and afaik no-one else 
  programmed stereo-software for it. See also: 8.14 stereo-software for
  the Atari...

b) other sound enhancements:

- Covox-Sound-Enhancement, originally developed in Poland; with some  
  electronic parts and pieces you can upgrade your Pokey's abilities, to  
  playback any digitised/sampled sound with 8-Bit resolution, instead of  
  its usual 4-Bit digi/sample playback resolution (see also 8.14). 
  
- SID-upgrade, the SID is the standard sound-chip in the C64 computers.
  Some polish freaks/nerds have found a way to include it into an A8,
  but allthough I have seen quite a lot of pictures (for example at 
  atariarea.nostalgia.pl) with this mod. and already found 1 or 2 
  programs that detect it (for example System Info 2.x by Draco), I 
  have not yet found any schematics for this upgrade. Anyway, it exists, 
  and with some programming skills it would surely be possible to write 
  programs then, that playback SID sounds on those Ataris which have this 
  upgrade installed... 

- Amie/Amy sound-chip, the Amie sound-chip was originally produced by
  Atari and installed into the 65XEM computer. Alas, it was never
  available to the public and only very few prototypes of this 65XEM 
  (maybe less than 10?) do exist. Besides of that RUMOURS say, that
  Atari had quite some problems with this soundchip and never finished 
  it completely/successfully. If the rumours are true, then this 
  soundchip provided many more sound channels, more octaves and even 
  more and better sound power than two Pokeys together (for more infos 
  take a look at this URL:     )

- guess there are dozens of other sound enhancements, for example sound
  cards (like Adlib, etc.), sound-chips, midi-interfaces, etc. that could
  be attached or converted to the A8; I won't name them all here...(A.M.)

------------------------------

Subject: 6.17) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer and Mathy van Nisselroy. 
 
Midi is standard on the Atari ST computers, because it is built-in into 
these computers. Nevertheless, Midi was long before the arrival of the 
ST computers on the market and thus, it is no surprise that there are 
even midi-interfaces and enhancements for the classic 8Bit Ataris. The 
following "types" do exist: 
 
- "Midi-Mate" and "Midi-Track" by Hybrid Arts (USA), comes with hardware 
  + software, see reviews & tests in Antic, Analog and other magazines. 
  MidiTrack requires 48k RAM, MidiTrack II 64k RAM and MidiTrack III 
  128k RAM (XE compatible, not Axlon compatible). MidiMate features 
  MIDI IN+OUT and SYNC IN+OUT ports, but lacks a second SIO plug.
  MMS (MIDI Music System) is a MIDI version of AMS, also sold by Hybrid 
  Arts and comes with AMS to MMS converter software...

- "MIDI Master" by 2-Bit Software (UK), comes with hardware+software.
   Features MIDI IN+OUT ports, an extra SIO plug, but no SYNC ports.
   See also reviews and ads in (New) Atari User...

- "MIDI interface" by DIGICOMM (UK), comes with hardware + 'example
  programs'. Features MIDI IN, THRU and OUT ports. There`s no word
  about a second SIO plug or any SYNC ports. See also reviews and ads
  in (New) Atari User...

- "MIDIMAX" by Wizztronics (UK), comes with hardware and software.
  Features MIDI IN+OUT ports and a second SIO plug. The MMS software 
  that comes with MidiMax requires 48k RAM and is fully compatible to 
  the Hybrid Arts hardware+software. This means, one can use the 
  software with both Midi-interfaces or use the interfaces with the 
  software of both vendors...

- "Atari-Midi-Interface" by Karlheinz Metscher (appeared in the german 
  magazine Computer Kontakt June/July 1986, pages 69-75, complete with 
  documentation, schematics and its first program "Midi-Receiver"; 
  in Computer Kontakt October/November 1986 appeared the second program, 
  called "Midi-Disk" - a Midi Recorder and Player program); 
 
- "Midi-Interface for Atari XL/XE" by Ireneusz Kuczek (appeared in the 
  german ABBUC magazine, issue 65, pages 3-6); the paper-mag. includes 
  a schematic for the midi-interface and some translated descriptions for 
  the software (translated from polish to german language), whereas the 
  disk-magazine contains the midi-programs "Midiplay Version 1.3" by I. 
  Kuczek, "Midi-Recorder Version 1.2" by I.Kuczek, "Rec to Mid" by I. 
  Kuczek (a converter program for the IBM-PC!), "Midi-Sequencer V.1.15" 
  by Maciej Sygit and "Midi-Pattern-Editor MPE V.2.3" by Radek Sterba. 
  These programs and many additional demo sounds are also available in 
  the ABBUC PD library (PD numbers 625-632).

- guess there are several other (selfmade) midi-interfaces for the Atari 
  8Bit available, alas they also require a keyboard or synthesizer and 
  self-created (or downloaded) midi-sounds can only be played back via 
  such a midi-interface and the affore mentioned keyboard/synthesizer. 
  As of yet, it seems there exists no midi-player program, that can 
  playback any midi-sound via the Atari Pokey chip, nor any converter 
  program, which can convert *.MID sounds into other Atari sound formats 
  (that could be played back on the Atari then)... 

------------------------------

Subject: 6.18) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- some 80 column interfaces made by Atari and third parties. Allthough 
  these interfaces are there to provide a better text display with 80 
  chars. per line, they can somehow be used as a simple graphic 
  enhancement; think I have seen a graphic demo for the XEP-80 device 
  somewhere, that used a higher graphic resolution in Gr. 0 or Gr. 8 
  and also provided some animation (not only text, but also graphics), 
  alas I don`t remember the name of that demo...;
- the ultra-rare 1090XL box and probably graphic cards for it (who-ever 
  owns this item, doesn't use it, who-ever would like to have + use it, 
  doesn't own it or cannot afford it!);
- more seriously: Antic and GTIA upgrade by Chuck Steinman. Afaik, an
  article about that topic appeared in Atari Classic, since I do not own
  it, I can merely speculate that it adds a second Antic and GTIA for 
  higher resolution and/or more colours...;
- many selfmade upgrades, using graphic chips or graphic cards from other
  computers...

------------------------------

Subject: 6.19) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

Just a short overview here, for a more detailed description (table), see
also 8.10 kinds of atari ramdisks (and 8.11 + 8.12 for programs that
support or require a ramdisk). The following memory enhancements do exist:
- Atari 400/800: ramdisks on memory boards, that fit into the normal 
  Atari 800 memory slots (Axlon and Mosaic types);
- Atari XL/XE: a) internal memory enhancements: 
  - piggy-back versions,
  - professionel PCB versions,
  - SIMM-module versions;
               b) external memory enhancements: 
  - via XL-Parallel-Bus, 
  - via XE-Cart.port+ECI, 
  - Flash-ROM cart. versions, 
  - other Cartridge versions, 
  - RAM-Card versions, 
  - SIO-cartridge versions, 
  - ...                
Note that many of these XL/XE memory enhancements are just hobbyist or
selfmade-projects. Most versions which use newer PC technologies
(Flash-ROM cart., RAM-Card, SIO-cart., etc.) are still under development!

------------------------------

Subject: 7.1) What versions of the Atari Operating System (OS) are there?

Most of this section is reproduced here by permission from:
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm
All versions of the Atari OS may be available for download here as well.

Version 3.4, 2005-11-26
By Freddy Offenga


400/800 10kB OS roms
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rev. TV    Date        CRC-32      Part Nr(s)
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A    NTSC  1979        0xc1b3bb02  CO12499A, CO14599A, CO12399B
A    PAL   1979        0x72b3fed4  CO15199, CO15299, CO12399B
B    NTSC  1981        0x0e86d61d  CO12499B, CO14599B, 12399B
B    PAL   (?)         (?)         (?)


XL/XE 16kB OS roms
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rev. System  Date        CRC-32      Part Nr(s)
~~~~ ~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
10   1200XL  10/26/1982  0xc5c11546  CO60616A, CO60617A
11   1200XL  12/23/1982  (?)         CO60616B, CO60617B
1    600XL   03/11/1983  0x643bcc98  CO62024
2    XL/XE   05/10/1983  0x1f9cd270  CO61598B
3    800XE   03/01/1985  0x29f133f7  C300717
4    XEGS    05/07/1987  0x1eaf4002  C101687


(?)  This information is missing. If someone can supply this info,
     please write me an e-mail.


NOTES:
The 400/800 O.S's consist of three ROMs (two 4kB and one 2kB).
The 1200XL contains two ROMs for the OS (8k each), XL/XE's use a single
16k ROM and the 16k XEGS OS is stored in a 32k ROM (together with 8k
BASIC and 8k for Missile Command).


Origins of ROM information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
400/800 rev.A NTSC      All information from OS board C012989 (Rev D) and
                        rom dumps.
400/800 rev.A PAL       All info found in two Atari 400's and Atari 800
                        ROM module CX801.P
400/800 rev.B NTSC      Information from a ROM dump and the rev.B source
                        listing. The part numbers were listed in the
                        catalog from 'Best Electronics'. According to
                        'Mapping the Atari' rev.B ROMs have a 'B' at the
                        end of the part number, therefore I figure these
                        part numbers are from rev.B.
400/800 rev.B PAL       Could exist, since the NTSC version exists and
                        there's some conditional PAL/NTSC assembly in
                        the rev.B source code
1200XL rev.10 PAL/NTSC  All info found in an Atari 1200XL. The XL/XE
                        rev.2 source code refers to it as rev.10.
                        'Best Electronics' calls it rev.A.
1200XL rev.11 PAL/NTSC  Refered to rev.11 by the XL/XE source code.
                        'Best Electronics' calls it rev.B.
XL/XE rev.1             All info found in an Atari 600XL
XL/XE rev.2             All info found in an Atari 800XL
XL/XE rev.3             All info found in an 800XE
XL/XE rev.4             All info found in an Atari XE Game System


O.S. Authors and dates
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following info is from the Atari XL/XE rev.2 source code.

Revision A (400/800)
D.Crane / A.Miller / L.Kaplan / R.Whitehead

Revision B (400/800)
Fix several problems.
M.Mahar / R.S.Scheiman

Revision 10 (1200XL)
Support 1200XL, add new features.
H.Stewart / L.Winner / R.S.Scheiman /
Y.M.Chen / M.W.Colburn                          10/26/82

Revision 11 (1200XL)
Fix several problems.
R.S.Scheiman                                    12/23/82

Revision 1 (600XL/800XL)
Support PBI and on-board BASIC.
R.S.Scheiman / R.K.Nordin / Y.M.Chen            03/11/83

Revision 2 (600XL/800XL)
Fix several problems.
R.S.Scheiman                                    05/10/83
Bring closer to coding standard (object unchanged)
R.K.Nordin                                      11/01/83


Vapour-ware
~~~~~~~~~~~
The following OS roms originate from rare Atari 8-bit systems.
Since I don't own any of these (unfortunately), I don't have much
information about these roms. Who can help me?

I've got two 16K rom dumps from the 1450XLD. Both ID's are rev.3.
The first dated 3/23/1984 comes from the 'Pooldisk Too' CD-ROM
(filename: 1540os3.v0) and the second dated 6/21/1984 was send to
me by Nir Dary (filename: os1450.128). Main differences between
these two are in the first 3K ($C000 - $CBFF).

The XL/XE OS rev.3B is from an Atari from Arabia. It's probably based
on rev.3. There are changes in the fonts (Arab characters) and several
patches in the code. More info at:
http://www.savetz.com/vintagecomputers/arabic65xe/

Rev. Found in Size  CRC-32      Date
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
3    1450XLD  16kB  0x0d477aa1  3/23/1984
3    1450XLD  16kB  0xd425a9cf  6/21/1984
3B   65XE     16kB  0xf0a236d3  7/21/1984


References
~~~~~~~~~~
- The modified september Atari 400/800 computer operating system
  listing, revision B, (c)1982 Atari.
- The Atari O.S. source code rev.2, (c)1984 Atari.
- Atari XL addendum Atari home computer system operating system
  manual: supplement to Atari 400/800 technical reference notes.
- Best Electronics, catalog of Atari 8-bit parts.
- Mapping the Atari, revised edition, Ian Chadwick, Compute! books
  publication, 1985.


Thanks to
~~~~~~~~~
- Nir Dary for the rev.2 source code, rom dumps and the 1200XL.
- Sijmen Schouten for his reconstructed 400/800 Rev.B source code.
- Stephen Sheppard for 400/800 Rev.A/NTSC information and rom dumps.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
More info on what is maybe either the 1985 or 1987 XL/XE OS versions listed
above. From ST*ZMAGAZINE #36, Sept. 1, 1989 (as reprinted in PSAN Nov 89):
by Mark Elliot, Innovative Concepts
The following changes have been incorporated in the 130XE computer.

The O.S. has minor changes like:
  A) The MEMORY TEST (from SELF TESTS) tests the extra 64K now! (in 4 squares)
  B) Also, the MEMORY TEST checks the first 48K over TWICE as fast as before!
  C) The KEYBOARD TEST has the F1-F4 keys missing on top.  (function keys),
     although the code that interprets them is probably there (like XEGS).
  D) Also, it types out "COPYRIGHT 1985 ATARI" at the keyboard test, when all
     tests are done.  (compared to COPYRIGHT 1983 ATARI, before)
  E) And, the O.S. chip itself, is on a 27256 EPROM, but only half of it is
     used! (comprared to the original, which was on a 16K x 8 ROM, 27128 comp.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

------------------------------

Subject: 7.2) What is the ATASCII character set?

ASCII is an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information
Interchange. Pronounced ask-ee, ASCII is a code for representing English
characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. For
example, the ASCII code for uppercase M is 77. Most computers use ASCII codes
to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer
to another.

The 8-bit Atari computers use a modified version of the ASCII character set
called Atari ASCII, or ATASCII.

David Moeser produced this nice translation table.
Piotr Fusik corrected the description of Atari character 5.
End Of Line codes updated 2005.08.14

        ASCII TRANSLATION TABLE -- IBM & ATARI 8-BIT (ATASCII)
        ======================================================          
             
        SECTION ONE: CONTROL CHARACTERS 
        ===============================  
          
 DECIMAL      ATARI    IBM <----> ATARI     ASCII
    -HEX  NAME KEY    GRAPHICS CHARACTER    FUNCTION
 =======  ==== ===  ======================  ========
   0  00  NUL  ^,   none        heart       Null
   1  01  SOH  ^A   smiley      |-          Start of header
   2  02  STX  ^B   [smiley]    right |     Start of text
   3  03  ETX  ^C   heart       (9:00)      End of last text
   4  04  EOT  ^D   diamond     -|          End of transmission
   5  05  ENQ  ^E   club        (9:30)      Enquiry
   6  06  ACK  ^F   spade       /           Acknowledge (handshake)
   7  07  BEL  ^G   rain dot    \           Bell
   8  08  BS   ^H   doorbell    L triangle  Backspace
   9  09  HT   ^I   o           low-R-sq.   Horizontal tab
  10  0A  LF   ^J   [doorbell]  R triangle  Line feed
  11  0B  VT   ^K   Mars        hi-R-sq.    Vertical tab
  12  0C  FF   ^L   Venus       hi-L-sq.    Form feed
  13  0D  CR   ^M   note        high bar    Carriage return
  14  0E  SO   ^N   2 notes     low bar     Shift out
  15  0F  SI   ^O   sun         low-L-sq.   Shift in
  16  10  DLE  ^P   R pennant   club        Data link escape (break)
  17  11  DC1  ^Q   L pennant   (3:30)      Device #1 (P:)
  18  12  DC2  ^R   V arrows    --          Device #2
  19  13  DC3  ^S   !!          cross       Device #3 (deselects P:)
  20  14  DC4  ^T   paragraph   cloudy      Device #4 (stop)
  21  15  NAK  ^U   section     low block   Negative acknowl. (error)
  22  16  SYN  ^V   short -     left |      Synchronous idle
  23  17  ETB  ^W   base-V-arrs.low T       End of block
  24  18  CAN  ^X   up arrow    hi perp.    Cancel memory (in buffer)
  25  19  EM   ^Y   DN arrow    left half   End medium (tape drive)
  26  1A  SUB  ^Z   R arrow     (3:00)      Substitute
  27  1B  ESC  EE   L arrow     escape      Escape
  28  1C  FS   E^-  (3:00)      up arrow    File separator
  29  1D  GS   E^=  ice needles DN arrow    Group separator
  30  1E  RS   E^+  up triangle L arrow     Record separator
  31  1F  US   E^*  DN triangle R arrow     Unit separator
  32  20  SPC  bar  space       space       Space    
     
  
        SECTION TWO: SPECIAL CHARACTERS
        ===============================
 127  7F  DEL  ETB  home plate  R pennant   Deleted
 155  9B  EOL  RETURN           box, etc.   ATASCII end of line (newline)
 13,10   CR/LF ENTER  ^M^J                  Windows,DOS,CP/M newline
 10   0A  LF   ENTER  ^J                    UNIX,Mac OS X,Amiga newline
 13   0D  CR   ENTER  ^M                    Apple II,MacOS (pre-X) newline
         
  
        KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS:
        ====================
 ^  = control key   L  = left          hi   = upper
 S  = shift key     R  = right         low  = lower
 E  = escape key    UP = points up     [  ] = inverse
 BS = backspace     DN = points down   V    = vertical
 TB = tab key       sq = square        perp = perpendicular
                    (time) = position of hands on a clockface
  
    Where possible, descriptions of graphics characters are taken 
 from standard symbols used in mathematics, weather, astronomy, etc.
 Note: Different computer platforms, operating systems, programs, 
 printers, etc. will produce different graphics characters.
  
  
        SECTION THREE: KEYBOARD CHARACTERS 
        ==================================   
           
 DECIMAL     IBM        ATARI      DECIMAL     IBM        ATARI 
    -HEX   KEY CHAR.  KEY CHAR.       -HEX   KEY CHAR.  KEY CHAR.
 =======   === ====   === ====     =======   === ====   === ====
  32  20   bar space  bar space    80  50    P     P    P     P
  33  21   S1    !    S1    !      81  51    Q     Q    Q     Q
  34  22   S'    "    S2    "      82  52    R     R    R     R
  35  23   S3    #    S3    #      83  53    S     S    S     S
  36  24   S4    $    S4    $      84  54    T     T    T     T
  37  25   S5    %    S5    %      85  55    U     U    U     U
  38  26   S7    &    S6    &      86  56    V     V    V     V
  39  27   '     '    S7    '      87  57    W     W    W     W
  40  28   S9    (    S9    (      88  58    X     X    X     X
  41  29   S0    )    S0    )      89  59    Y     Y    Y     Y
  42  2A   S8    *    *     *      90  5A    Z     Z    Z     Z
  43  2B   S=    +    +     +      91  5B    [     [    S,    [
  44  2C   ,     ,    ,     ,      92  5C    \     \    S+    \
  45  2D   -     -    -     -      93  5D    ]     ]    S.    ]
  46  2E   .     .    .     .      94  5E    S6    ^    S*    ^
  47  2F   /     /    /     /      95  5F    S-    _    S-    _
  48  30   0     0    0     0      96  60    `     `    ^.    `
  49  31   1     1    1     1      97  61    a     a    a     a
  50  32   2     2    2     2      98  62    b     b    b     b
  51  33   3     3    3     3      99  63    c     c    c     c
  52  34   4     4    4     4     100  64    d     d    d     d
  53  35   5     5    5     5     101  65    e     e    e     e
  54  36   6     6    6     6     102  66    f     f    f     f
  55  37   7     7    7     7     103  67    g     g    g     g
  56  38   8     8    8     8     104  68    h     h    h     h
  57  39   9     9    9     9     105  69    i     i    i     i
  58  3A   S;    :    S;    :     106  6A    j     j    j     j
  59  3B   ;     ;    ;     ;     107  6B    k     k    k     k
  60  3C   S,    <    <     <     108  6C    l     l    l     l
  61  3D   =     =    =     =     109  6D    m     m    m     m
  62  3E   S.    >    >     >     110  6E    n     n    n     n
  63  3F   S/    ?    S/    ?     111  6F    o     o    o     o
  64  40   S2    @    S8    @     112  70    p     p    p     p
  65  41   A     A    A     A     113  71    q     q    q     q
  66  42   B     B    B     B     114  72    r     r    r     r
  67  43   C     C    C     C     115  73    s     s    s     s
  68  44   D     D    D     D     116  74    t     t    t     t
  69  45   E     E    E     E     117  75    u     u    u     u
  70  46   F     F    F     F     118  76    v     v    v     v
  71  47   G     G    G     G     119  77    w     w    w     w
  72  48   H     H    H     H     120  78    x     x    x     x
  73  49   I     I    I     I     121  79    y     y    y     y
  74  4A   J     J    J     J     122  7A    z     z    z     z
  75  4B   K     K    K     K     123  7B    S[    {    ^;  spade
  76  4C   L     L    L     L     124  7C    S\    |    S=    |
  77  4D   M     M    M     M     125  7D    S]    }    E^< left-turn
  78  4E   N     N    N     N     126  7E    S`    ~    EBS L pennant
  79  4F   O     O    O     O     127  7F    none house ETB R pennant

------------------------------

Subject: 7.3) What is Atari BASIC?

BASIC is an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
Developed by John Kemeney and Thomas Kurtz in the mid 1960s at Dartmouth
College, BASIC is one of the earliest and simplest high-level programming
languages, incorporating components of FORTRAN and ALGOL.

In 1978 Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) to create a
version of BASIC (along with a File Management System (FMS)) for the upcoming
Atari personal computers.  The following worked together on the project, which
resulted in Atari BASIC (along with the original Atari DOS):

Paul Laughton (author of Apple DOS) - project leader, co-primary contributor
Kathleen O'Brien - co-primary contributor
Bill Wilkinson - floating point scheme design
Paul Krasno - implemented the math library routines following guidelines
              supplied by Fred Ruckdeschel (author of the acclaimed text, 
              BASIC Scientific Subroutines)
Bob Shepardson - Modified IMP-16 Assembler to accept special syntax tables
                 Paul invented
Mike Peters - keypuncher/computer operator/junior programmer/troubleshooter

In late 1980/early 1981 the development rights to Atari BASIC were purchased
from Shepardson Microsystems by a new company, Optimized Systems Software
(OSS), headed by Bill Wilkinson.

Three Revisions of Atari BASIC were produced: A, B, and C:
  A - cartridge produced for use with the 400/800/1200XL
  B - built-in to the 600XL/800XL, also produced on cartridge
  C - built-in to the 800XL(late models)/65XE/130XE/800XE/XE Game System,
      also produced on cartridge.

In order to find out what version you are running, at the READY prompt, 
enter "? PEEK(43234)"

If the result is:  You have Revision:       Atari Part#:
     162                  A                 CO12402+CO14502 
     96                   B                 CO60302A 
     234                  C                 CO24947A 

On versions A, B, and C, Greg Miller writes:
    "Rev A had a number of bugs, not just the commonly described crash bug. 
    Rev B fixed most (maybe all, I don't remember) of these, but in the
    process, they added a new bug.  You see, the crashes were caused by a bug
    in one of OSS's memory move routines.  When the bug was fixed, the fix
    mistakenly applied to a routine that actually worked in Rev A, causing the
    new lockup problem.
        
    Rev C differs in only a few bytes. AFAIK, the only change was to remove
    the alteration made to the routine that was broken by Rev B.

Also concerning versions A, B and C, Russ Gilbert writes (3 Jul 2002):
    "I've got an opinion on this, my opinion is wrong to 95% of Atari users.
        
    B is a re-compile of A.  C is a 12 byte patch to B.
       
    I've used Atari BASIC for a millenium (?).  B has less hangs and
    ridiculous stuff like losing DIMs and stuff.  C hangs like a lot. I must
    admit I don't have very much experience with C as I go back to B after
    using C for a short time.
        
    I prefer B.  I know its foibles.  Just LIST, NEW, ENTER, SAVE every 5 or
    6 SAVEs.  Also, 0 REM will help with ENTERs that aren't working (put a
    immediate 0 REM line before you ENTER.)"

All 3 versions of Atari BASIC may be available for download here:
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 7.4) What are Atari DOS I, DOS II, DOS 3, DOS 2.5, and DOS XE?

Here are short descriptions of the various Disk Operating Systems (DOS)
versions produced by Atari for use with their 8-bit computers.

In 1978 Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) to create a
File Management System (FMS) (along with a version of BASIC) for the upcoming
Atari personal computers.  The following worked together on the project, which
resulted in the original Atari DOS (along with Atari BASIC):

Paul Laughton (author of Apple DOS) - project leader, co-primary contributor
Kathleen O'Brien - co-primary contributor
Bill Wilkinson - floating point scheme design
Paul Krasno - implemented the math library routines following guidelines
              supplied by Fred Ruckdeschel (author of the acclaimed text, 
              BASIC Scientific Subroutines)
Bob Shepardson - Modified IMP-16 Assembler to accept special syntax tables
                 Paul invented
Mike Peters - keypuncher/computer operator/junior programmer/troubleshooter

The original Atari DOS shipped with 810 disk drives until 1981.  It consists
of a single file, DOS.SYS, which is loaded into memory from disk on startup.
At the top of the menu screen it reads:
   DISK OPERATING SYSTEM    9/24/79
   COPYRIGHT 1979 ATARI
With the release of DOS II in 1981, Atari referred to this first release of
DOS as DOS I.  Nearly all users quickly abandoned DOS I in favor of DOS II.
Trivia: The DOS I "N. DEFINE DEVICE" menu option does not work.
The Atari DOS I disk is labeled: Atari 810 Master Diskette (CX8101).

DOS II Version 2.0S was shipped with 810 disk drives, and early 1050 disk
drives, from 1981-1983.  It consists of two files:
 - DOS.SYS is loaded into memory from disk on startup
 - DUP.SYS, which contains the DOS menu, is loaded only when needed.   
MEM.SAV can be employed to preserve the contents of memory to disk when
DUP.SYS is loaded, so that the data can be restored to memory when exiting
from the DOS menu.  DOS 2.0S supports Atari's proprietary single-sided, single
density 90K 5.25" floppy disk format only.  DOS 2.0S represents the lowest
common denominator of Atari DOS versions--you can be assured than any Atari
disk drive for the 8-bit Atari can work with disks formatted with DOS 2.0S.
DOS 2.0S can read disks written with DOS I; the reverse is not the case.  The
DOS 2.0S disk is labeled: Atari 810 Master Diskette II (CX8104).
DOS 2.0S was delivered by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by Bill
Wilkinson, for Atari.

DOS 2.0S consists of four separate elements:
    1. DUP - Disk Utility Package
    2. CIO - Central Input/Output
    3. FMS - File Management System
    4. SIO - Serial Input/Output

DOS II Version 2.0D was shipped with the rare Atari 815 Dual Disk Drive.
Supports double-density disk drives; also supports single-density disk drives.
The DOS 2.0D disk is labeled: Atari 815 Master Diskette (CX8201).

For much more about DOS II see Inside Atari DOS by Bill Wilkinson (1982),
online at http://www.atariarchives.org/iad/ .

DOS 3 shipped with 1050 disk drives from 1983-1985.  It was created in part to
take advantage of the 1050's Dual-Density capability, by employing a single-
sided, enhanced-density 128K 5.25" floppy disk drive format.  Atari called
this format "dual-density," but the Atari community quickly came to refer to
this format as "enhanced-density" to better differentiate it from widely
available 3rd-party truly double density disk drives and supporting versions
of DOS.  DOS 3 uses a disk format incompatible with DOS 2.0S.  It included a
utility to convert files from DOS 2.0S to DOS 3, but not back again.  It used
disk space less efficiently than DOS 2.0S.  For these reasons and others, DOS
3 was not widely accepted by the Atari community, and like DOS I is not
generally used except for curiosity's sake.  The DOS 3 disk is labeled: Master
Diskette 3 (DX5052).

DOS II Version 2.5 shipped with 1050 disk drives and early XF551 disk drives
from 1985-1988.  DOS 2.5 represented Atari's relenting to the masses,
returning to DOS 2.0S compatability.  DOS 2.5 very closely resembles DOS 2.0S,
with just a few features added.  It supports both DOS 2.0S single-density 90K
formats, as well as an enhanced density 128K format for use with the 1050 disk
drive.  DOS 2.5 also includes a RAMdisk utility for use with the 128K 130XE
computer, a utility to convert files from DOS 3 disks back to DOS 2.5, and
other disk utilities.  DOS 2.5 is just about as universal among Atari users as
DOS 2.0S.  The DOS 2.5 disk is labeled simply: DOS 2.5 (DX5075).

DOS XE shipped with XF551 disk drives after 1988.  Like DOS 3, DOS XE
introduced a whole new format for Atari floppy disks; but unlike DOS 3, DOS XE
also preserved general compatability with DOS 2.0S/2.5.  DOS XE supports the
full capabilities of the double-sided, double density 360K per 5.25" floppy
disk XF551 disk drive, including that drive's high-speed burst mode.  DOS XE
also fully supports the 90K SS/SD capability of the 810 disk drive, the 128K
SS/ED capability of the 1050 disk drive, the 180K SS/DD capability of most
3rd-party disk drives for the Atari, and a RAMdisk for use with the 130XE.
Date-stamping of files is supported.  DOS XE requires an XL or XE computer; it
is not compatable with the 400/800 computer models.  Even though DOS XE was
critically well-received, and represented a substantial jump in capabilities
over DOS 2.5, its arrival came so late in the crouded realm of Atari and 3rd-
party DOS versions that it never achieved much acceptance among real users,
and is now relegated to the same status as DOS I and DOS 3 before it.  Before
its release, DOS XE was widely known as "ADOS."  It was developed by Bill
Wilkinson for Atari.  The DOS XE disk is labeled: DOS XE Master Diskette
(DX5090).

------------------------------

Subject: 7.5) What are MyDOS, SpartaDOS, and other popular DOS versions?

Section includes contributions by Andreas Magenheimer (most DOS 2 clone
descriptions); Jeff Williams (12/6/04, Mike Gustafson wrote SpartaDOS)

Atari DOS versions are very popular, but many 3rd-party DOS versions have also
been developed over the years.  Of these, MyDOS and SpartaDOS seem to be the
most-used today.

MyDOS 4.53
==========
MyDOS is modelled after Atari DOS 2.0S/2.5, but provides subdirectory and
hard-drive support, along with many other "high-end" features.

MyDOS 4.53/3 was released as freeware by David R. Eichel on 1/1/90. 
Defaults to a 3 character file length/free sector count instead of MyDOS's
normal 4. Supports multiple AUTORUNs at boot up (*.AR0 through *.AR9).
Supports Axlon RAMdisks.

MyDOS 4.53/4 is the same as 4.53/3, but uses a minimum of four characters in
the sector count just like most versions of MyDOS.

MYDOS 4.51 was developed by Wordmark Systems (Charles Marslett).  Source code
is available as "abandonware" at: http://www.wordmark.org/

MYDOS 4.50 was released on 11/28/88, developed by C. Marslett & R. Puff
http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/MYDOS45M.ARC

Mathy van Nisselroy's MyDOS page, including recent patches by Lee Barnes:
http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/mydos.htm

SpartaDOS 3.2, 3.3, X (4.22)
============================
SpartaDOS is a completely different command-line DOS modelled after MS-DOS,
though it is perfectly capable of reading all Atari DOS and MyDOS disks.

There are many versions available.  Hopefully this list will help keep them
all straight.

SpartaDOS X (SDX) cartridge
---------------------------
Greatly enhanced/expanded compared to disk-based SpartaDOS; completely
different source code. Several versions produced:
    4.22  11-05-95  released by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe, Mike Hohman)
    4.21   7-10-89  released by ICD
    4.20   2-06-89  released by ICD
    4.19   1-16-89  released by ICD
    4.18  10-29-88  released by ICD 
    4.17    ?-?-88  released by ICD
SpartaDOS X versions 4.17-4.21 were written by Mike Gustafson at ICD.

SpartaDOS Pro 3.3a, 3.3b, and 3.3c - 1994-1997
----------------------------------
The SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 versions were developed for FTe by programmers Stephen
J. Carden and Ken Ames, based upon a disassembled copy of the older (more
stable?) 3.2c release from ICD.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3a  3-Nov-94 -- Added MUX support and MS-DOS Commands.
   Highspeed SIO routines NOT included.  Recommended for use in emulators 
   (especially Xformer) only.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3b 25-Dec-95 -- Has two different SIOV handlers, one
   for the MUX and one for the MIO.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3c  1995 -- Looks at your system and by checking it
   determines what CIO handler to load, and has MS-DOS command set.  Black
   Box, MUX, and MIO are fully supported, though none of these are required.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3c 19-Dec-97 -- The same 3.3c produced on a 16K ROM
   cartridge and available for purchase from Video 61.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3d -- Contains additional fixes for MIO users.
   unreleased?

According to Lance Ringquist of Video 61:
K-Products contracted with FTe to develop SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 for exclusive use
and distribution with K-Products' BBS Express! Pro, to provide this BBS system
with the most stable platform possible.  As Video 61 purchased the rights to
the entire K-Products product line, SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 became a product of
Video 61.

SpartaDOS 3.2g and 3.2gx - Dated 6/4/94.
------------------------
Last official disk-based versions, released as shareware by Fine Tooned
Engineering (FTe), who had purchased the rights from ICD.  3.2g is the primary
version; 3.2gx differs only in that it locates the disk buffers under the OS
to save RAM.  3.2gx is intended for use in systems that include a PBI device
(MIO, Black Box); it is not compatible with BASIC XE nor any other programs
using RAM under the OS.

First shareware release from FTe: 3.2f.

Earlier major releases from the original developer, ICD: 3.2d, 3.2c, 2.3, 1.1
SpartaDOS 1.1-3.2d were written by Mike Gustafson at ICD.

Only the SDX cartridges and the original version 1.1 are compatible with the
400/800 computer models; SpartaDOS 2.x and 3.x require an XL/XE.

Many disk-based SpartaDOS versions are available for download from
Thunderdome, kept by SysOp Fox-1:  http://thunderdome.atari.org/ or
http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/sdsys.htm

"SpartaDOS for MyIDE" is a patched version by Marius Diepenhorst:
http://www.mr-atari.com/hardware-3rd.htm

BW-DOS 1.30 and BW-DOS Update #2 - Released: 12/95   ("BeWe")
================================
Another popular, powerful DOS is BW-DOS, freeware by Jiri Bernasek (it is
pronounced "Bay Vay Dos") which is SpartaDOS compatible.  Does not use any
speeder internally, but comes with external XF551 speeder.  Supports 4 drives
and Ramdisk, comes with Ramdisk driver for XE compatible Ramdisks up to
1Megabyte; supports 4 densities: a) Single (90k), b) Enhanced/Medium (130k),
c) Double (180k) and d) DSDD (360k); does not use any RAM under OS ROM; unlike
SpartaDOS most commands are external, thus the DOS is only 5kbytes short;
supports a PAL clock (made by ABBUC regional group "ARGS"); comes with many
great utilities (which can also be used with SpartaDOS); paper printed German
and disk printed English docs are avaiable; latest version 1.3 is avaiable as
Freeware...

The other DOS varieties mentioned below are all, like MyDOS, Atari DOS-2
clones and thus DOS-2 compatible; avaiable as PD or Freeware...

TOP-DOS 1.5+
============
Carolyn Hoglin writes:
This superior DOS was written by R. K. Bennett of Eclipse Software in
Sunnyvale, CA.  It was based on Atari DOS, but with many, many more features.
It fully supports my double-density, double-sided Astra drives, automatically
sensing the proper density and sidedness of both drives 1 and 2.  (MYDOS only
seemed to do that on drive 1.)  Also supported are large ramdisks for Axlon,
Mosaic, etc.  The latest version was TOP-DOS 1.5+, which came with an
excellent manual explaining how to use its powerful capabilities.

SuperDOS 5.1
============
supports 4 formats SD/ED/DD/DSDD; supports 256k Xtra RAM/RD; supports 4
speeders: Happy+Speedy+XF551+US Doubler and its compatibles; has an AUX.SYS
file with option to use / not use RAM under OS ROM; has unfortunately a very
slow Ramdisk;

BiboDOS 5.4 and 6.4 
===================
3 versions avaiable, one without speeder - 5.4NT, one with Happy/Speedy
support 5.4HS and one with XF support 6.4XF; supports 4 formats / up to 360k;
supports 256k Xtra Ram / RD; the DUP.SYS uses RAM under OS ROM, thus Turbo-
BASIC must load without DUP;

Turbo-DOS 2.1 
=============
Master-Disk produces 4 different versions: 2.1NT without speeders, 2.1HS for
Happy/Speedy, 2.1XF for XF551 and 2.1EX for 3 speeders: Happy+Speedy+XF551;
supports 256k Xtra RAM / RD and supports use of batchfiles; has converter for
DOS 3 and DOS 4; supports 4 formats, up to 360k; does not use RAM under OS
ROM; DUP uses a Command Processor; all commands are avaiable via HELP key;
works with XL/XE computers only, does not load/boot on Atari 400/800 no clue
why;

------------------------------

Subject: 7.6) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives?

Russ Gilbert writes:

DOS 2 type DOSes default to two drives.
Boot DOS and BASIC.
? PEEK(1802)
if it is 3 then you only recognize two drives.
To get the 3rd drive, poke 1802,7.  Then go to dup.sys (type DOS)
and write system files.  Next time you boot that DOS, you'll recognize
3 drives.
If you want four drives, poke 1802,15.

------------------------------

Subject: 7.7) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari?

Contributors: Andreas Magenheimer, Mathy van Nisselroy, Kathleen Ferrante

- Diamond GOS version 1 (a cart and a PD demo-disk-version do exist), 
  version 2 (cart only), version 3 (cart only); plus some applications 
  (painter program, text program, etc.); Diamond GOS has been made 
  freeware by the author Alan Reeve;

- G.O.S., the Graphic operating system by Total Control systems; two different
versions are avaiable (I call them GOS 1 and GOS 2) and they are PD;

- G.O.E., the Graphic Operating Environment also by Total Control Systems
(this one merely works under Sparta DOS, not with Bewe-DOS and not at all with
DOS 2.x); so far I have found 3 different versions (GOE 1,2,3) with some
applications (graphic/painting program, etc.); PD;

- S.A.M., the Screen Aided Management (unfortunately it has the same name as
SAM, the software aided mouth) from PPP/Germany. It is avaiable in two
different versions: a) the type-in listing from Atari magazin and/or the Lazy
finger disks (which are PD!) or b) the commercial version 2.0 which has many
add-ons and can still be bought from Dean Garaghty/UK or
PD-World-Versand/Germany; This GUI merely works correct under DOS 2.5 and
Medium/dual density, however...

- BOSS-XL, the XL-Desktop from Mirko Sobe; written in Turbo-BASIC; freeware;
http://www.atarixle.de/

- BOSS-XE, the XE-Desktop from Mirko Sobe; written in Turbo-BASIC;freeware,
http://www.atarixle.de/

- BOSS-X the newest desktop version from Mirko Sobe, needs an 128k+ Computer
(128k or more memory), supports MyDOS up to 16MB and MyDOS subdirs...; still
written in Turbo-BASIC; many applications and drivers; freeware;
http://www.atarixle.de/

- XL-TOS a small and "cheap" GUI version from Atari magazin (i.e. a type-in
listing; the BASIC file, which consists of many data lines creates a short
object code file); unfortunately this GUI only looks good, it loads almost
nothing... PD;

- ST-TOS a small BASIC program, that looks like a GUI; it can merely load
BASIC files and do a few DOS commands, like lock, unlock, delete and such...
(PD)

- BASIC desktop, a GUI written in BASIC just as a sample, what can be done
with an 8-bit computer; this one loads BASIC and text files (maybe also ML
files); PD;

- DCS, the desktop construction set from Tom Hunt; there are 3 different
versions avaiable, a) for DOS 2.5, b) for MyDOS andc) for Sparta-DOS; I have
tested the Sparta DOS version, which worked with batchfiles and could easily
load some ML files, text files and BASIC files (which were already on the DCS
disk); it also works with high densities and/or hard disk partitions up to
16MB and supports subdirs of course; hmm, freeware or shareware ?!?

- ATOS - GUI by Tom Hunt/Closer To Home.  http://cth.dtdns.net/atos/
  1) Lets you use any demo or intro as a screen saver!!
  2) Works with all Atari hardware, BB, MIO and Hard drives, SpartaDOS support
  3) Lets you run files like full games and demos and then
     return back to the desktop.  It uses Overlays.

- Atari Desktop by ABC software (Poland), includes editors, converters,
file copiers, sector copy, tape+turbo tape copy, small games, CMC finder
and player and much much more; works with 64k RAM and keyboard input;
disk manuals only in polish language...

- Windows XL a Turbo-BASIC GUI with some nice add-ons, like calculator, editor
and other things. written in 1986-1988 by Joerg Forg.

- there are a lot more GUI programs, however many of them are written in BASIC
or Turbo BASIC and are very restricted; most of them merely look like a GUI
but need to much memory for everyday use. Thats why most users still prefer
those DOS or Gamedos (Gameloader, Multiloader, etc.) programs...

------------------------------

Subject: 7.8) What should I know about modem device handlers?

In order to use a modem on the Atari, a modem software handler, or R: device
handler, must be loaded into memory.

There are several families of R: handlers, corresponding to the different ways
in which a modem may be attached to the Atari.

Except for family #7 below, these handlers are used in one of two ways. 
Either they are (A) loaded into memory from DOS just before running the main
terminal application, or (B) the terminal program is appended to the handler,
so that in practice, a single file is loaded from DOS which contains both the
R: device handler and the application itself.

1) 835/1030/XM301 modems.  Atari-only modems, interface via SIO

2) MPP/Supra modems.  Atari-only modems, interface via joystick port

3) R-Verter cable. Connect standard Hayes-type modems via SIO
   / SX212 modem. A Hayes-compatible modem, interface via SIO

4) SWP ATR8000 interface. Standard Hayes-type RS232 modems via this interface.

Richard Anderson writes (Oct 2 02): 
  Mine originally came with a driver program; and, I believe, a BASIC program
  to set up the driver from BASIC.  Later they shipped with a special version
  of MyDOS with the R: handler built in.

5) 850 Interface/P:R: Connection, internal

This type of "mini handler" simply loads the R: device handler code from a ROM
chip inside the RS232 serial interface.  A long beep is heard through the
speaker when the handler is loaded into the computer's RAM.

Many varieties of DOS for the Atari include an explicit provision for loading
this type of R: handler into memory from the 850 or compatible interface.

Also, this type of R: handler is automatically loaded when any 8-bit Atari
computer is turned on with a P:R: Connection or powered 850 connected, but no
powered disk drive is present.

6) 850 Interface/P:R: Connection, external

Used with the 850/P:R: Connection in place of these interfaces' built-in
handlers.

7) MIO/Black Box interfaces, internal 

These interfaces utilitize the PBI or ECI parallel ports on the Atari.  They
include their own R: handlers in ROM, using no computer RAM at all.

8) MIO/Black Box interfaces, external: Len Spencer's Hyperspeed

This handler is "optional" for the Black Box, but "essential" for the MIO
in order to take full advantage of the high-speed hardware handshaking
capabilities of these two interfaces.

Hyperspd.arc is available at http://members.aol.com/lenspencer/atari8.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari?

This section is by Freddy Offenga, reproduced here by permission from:
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm

Revision : 2.0
Date.... : 2005-2-20

==============================================================
The goal is to give information about all available languages
for the Atari 8-bit computer. This information includes:
title, last version, author, date and a short description.
It would also be nice to know how to get it and where to get
more information (like reference cards, reviews and such).

Maintainer: Freddy Offenga
Email : taf.offenga [at] chello.nl (replace " [at] " with "@")
URL   : http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari.htm

==============================================================

There are quite a lot! To get some structure in this section it's
divided into the following categories;

        a) ASSEMBLER
        b) BASIC
        c) C
        d) PASCAL
        e) LISP
        f) FORTH
        g) PILOT
        h) LOGO
        i) All the rest

The following format is used:

    - Language titel (medium)
      version, year  : version, year
      author/company : author/company
      available..... : where/how to get it
      package....... : programs, documentation
      features...... : main features
      Description.

The question marks (?) indicate that more information is
required about that topic.

Credits
=======
- The Multi-lingual Atari, Analog magazine 45, August 1986
- A bunch of manuals
- Some copy-pasted lines from the Atari 8-bit newsgroup
- umich (University of Michigan Atari archive)
- David Wyn Davies (PL65)
- Kevin Savetz (APX titles)
- Maury Markowitz
- Michael Current
- JT (ValForth)
- Andreas Magenheimer
- Winston Smith
- Carsten Strotmann
- Brad Arnold

Revision history
================

2.0
- Added Atari Pilot info from Brad Arnold

1.9
- X-Assembler updated
- Added "QS FORTH" info from Winston Smith
- Added FORTH section work from Michael Current (thanks to Carsten Strotmann)
  (see also: http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForth)
- Several updates in the assembler section

1.8
Thanks to Adreas Magenheimer for these updates:
- Added "Mesa-Forth"
- Added "130XE Assembler 4.32"
- Updated "SynAssembler"

1.7
Thanks to Maury Markowitz for these updates:
- Updated "A BASIC Compiler"
- Added "Der BASIC Compiler", "MMG BASIC Compiler"
- Added "Frost BASIC", "TT-BASIC XL"

1.6
Synchronized with Atari 8-bit FAQ May-2002 :
- Added "X-Assembler"
- Added "CTH Fast Basic"
- Added availability for "Deep Blue C"
- Added availability for "Atari Pascal"
- Ignored changes "Kyan Pascal" (need more info)
- Updated "ValForth"
- Updated "Extended fig-Forth"
- Updated "fun-Forth"
- Added "Extended WSFN"
- Removed e-mail addresses
- Added availability for "A65"
- Updated "PL65"

1.0 .. 1.5
Changes not noted.
Old versions are available on request.


a) ASSEMBLER

    - 130XE Makro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.32, ?
      author/company : Torsten Karwoth
      available..... : freeware, ABBUC PD #297
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, monitor,
                       batch enhancement, linker/packer
      features...... : macros
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated menu, editor
      and monitor shell for 128KB RAM Ataris. Source format
      is derived from Atmas Makroassembler.
      
    - 130XE+ Makro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1992
      author/company : Torsten Karwoth
      available..... : freeware, ABBUC PD #368
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, monitor,
                       batch enhancement, linker/packer
      features...... : macros
      New version with 128KB - 1088KB RAM support.
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated menu, editor
      and monitor shell. Needs extra RAM banks. Source
      format is derived from Atmas Makroassembler.

    - A65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1989
      author/company : Charles Marslett, WORDMARK Systems
      available..... : abandonware, http://www.wordmark.org/
      package....... : assembler, manual
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler. Source format is based on the
      Atari Macro Assembler. Assembler source included.

    - Alfasm, Turbo-Assembler/16 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1990
      author/company : Jeff Williams, DataQue Software
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, docs
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502/65816 assembler.

    - Assi (download)
      version, year  : 0.0.41, 2000
      author/company : MacFalkner
      available..... : http://members.aol.com/macfalkner/atariindex.htm
      package....... : assembler, file linker
      features...... : source include, data include, code relocation
      Cross assembler for Win32. Source code is highly compatible with
      Atmas for the Atari.

    - Atari Assembler/Editor (cart)
      version, year  : ?, 1981
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor

    - Atari Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0C, 1981
      author/company : Atari, APX
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, debugger, manual
      features...... : macros, source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler.

    - ATasm (disk)
      version, year  : 0.92, 1999
      author/company : Mark Schmelzenbach
      available..... : umich
      package....... : assembler
      features...... : macros, source include, optionally target .XFD
      disk images and machine state files (Atari800 / Atari800Win),
      conditional assembly. Two pass 6502 portable cross assembler.
      Highly compatible with MAC/65.

    - Atmas Makroassembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2, 1985
      author/company : Peter Finzel, Hofacker
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : macros
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.

    - Bibo Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 13/12/1986
      author/company : E.Reuss, Compy-shop
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor
      features...... : source include, data include
      Two pass 6502/65c02 assembler with integrated editor/
      monitor.

    - Datasm/65 assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1981
      author/company : DataSoft Inc.
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, manual
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler.

    - EASMD (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1981
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.

    - Fast Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.5, 1995
      author/company : MMMG Soft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, disassembler
      features...... : -

    - Kasm65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.51, 1997
      author/company : Ken Siders
      available..... : shareware, umich
      package....... : assembler, editor, linker, docs
      features...... : macros, relocation, source include,
                       conditional assembly
      Two pass 6502 assembler. Relocatable object files are
      compatible with ra65. Source format is derived from
      the Atari Macro Assembler.

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 1.01, 1984
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 2.00, 1982
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : macros, source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.
      Mac/65 is a direct descendant of the Atari Assembler/
      Editor (via EASMD).

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.20, 1994
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, Fine Tooned Engineering
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.20 demo version, 1982
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAE (disk)
      version, year  : .96, 1996
      author/company : John Harris
      available..... : umich
      package....... : assembler, menu, editor, monitor, docs
      features...... : macros, source include, data include,
                       conditional assembly
      Two pass 6502/65816 assembler with integrated editor/
      monitor. Extra RAM supported.

    - NASM65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1992
      author/company : Nat!
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, linker, librarian
      features...... : macros, relocation, source include
      One pass 6502 portable cross assembler (initially for
      the ST). Highly compatible with MAC/65.

    - PC-65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0 beta, 1996
      author/company : Jan Feenstra & Freddy Offenga
      available..... : -
      package....... : assembler
      features...... : macros, source include, data include,
                       boundary directive
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for PC/DOS. The source
      format is highly compatible with the ST-65 assembler.

    - Quick Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1990?
      author/company : JBW, Avalon?
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, debugger
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler with integrated editor.
      Very user friendly menu environment.

    - Ra65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1989
      author/company : John R. Dunning
      available..... : public domain, umich
      package....... : assembler, linker, librarian
                       part of cc65 (c-compiler)
      features...... : -

    - Synassembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 4.0, 1982
      author/company : Steve Hales, Synapse Soft
      available..... : http://www.atariland.com/members/oldatarian/
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler.
      An Adaptation by Steve Hales of the S.C. Assembler II.

    - ST-65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1991
      author/company : A. Stauffenberg, F. Offenga
      available..... : -
      package....... : assembler, menu shell, manual
      features...... : macros, conditional assembly,
                       source include, data include,
                       boundary directive
      Two pass 6502/65c02 cross assembler for the Atari ST
      written in 68000 assembly. As far as I know this is
      the first assembler with the boundary directive.

    - Xasm
      version, year  : 2.5.2, 2002
      author/company : Piotr Fusik
      available..... : http://xasm.atari.org/
      package....... : assembler, docs
      features...... : conditional assembly, source include,
                       binary include, pseudo commands,
                       pseudo addressing modes
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for PC/DOS. The source
      format is backward compatible with Quick Assembler.


b) BASIC

    - A BASIC Compiler (?)
      version, year  : 1.05, 1987
      author/company : Monarch Data Systems
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -

    - Advan BASIC (disk)
      version, year  : ?, ?
      author/company : Advan Language Designs
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -

    - Atari 800 Basic (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1981
      author/company : Microsoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Atari BASIC (cart)
      version, year  : Rev.C, 1983
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : standard ROM in Atari XL/XE
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, manual
      features...... : pretty plain BASIC implementation

    - Atari Microsoft BASIC II (cart)
      version, year  : ?, 1991
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - BASIC A+ (disk)
      version, year  : 3.05, 1981
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - BASIC XL (cart)
      version, year  : ?, ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - BASIC XE (cart)
      version, year  : ?, 1985
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - CTH Fast Basic (disk)
      version/year   : ?
      author/company : Tom Hunt/Closer to Home
      avaiable.......: PD, Freeware or Shareware;
      package........: language plus several test files
                       and examples; english docs;
      features.......: faster than Atari Basic, not much
                       slower than TB, does not use Ram under OS;
      available at Tom Hunt's homepage or elsewhere...

    - Der BASIC Compiler (?)
      version, year  : ?, 1983
      author/company : Datasoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -

    - Frost BASIC (?)
      version, year  : 1.04, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler
      features...... : -
      Version of Turbo Basic XL that runs on 48k machines (400/800).
      
    - MMG BASIC Compiler 2.0 (?)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1984
      author/company : Special Software Systems
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -
      It appears that this is a newer version of Der BASIC Compiler,
      licensed to some other company.

    - TT-BASIC XL (disk)
      version, year  : 2.11, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler
      features...... : -
      Published in the German magazine "Happy Computer".
      Appears to be a newer version of Turbo Basic XL.

    - Turbo Basic XL (disk)
      version, year  : 1.5, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler (V1.1)
      features...... : -
      Published in the German magazine "Happy Computer".


c) C

    - ACE C (disk)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : John Palevich & Ralph Walden
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      This is a newer version of 'Deep Blue C'.

    - C/65 (?)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Probably derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to 6502
      code which emulates the 8080 instruction set.

    - C65 (?)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Keith Ledbetter
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : good macro assembler
      This compiler does not support structs.

    - CC65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1989
      author/company : John R. Dunning
      available..... : umich archive,
      http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Languages/Cc65/
      package....... : compiler, linker, assembler, librarian
      features...... : -
      Public domain compiler. Also used as cross compiler.
      Relocatable object linkage files, and the most thorough
      K&R C for the 8-bit. Comes with an relocatable assembler.

    - CC8 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.3
      author/company : John Palevich & Steve Kennedy
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Compiler
      features...... : -
      ACE C with more "real" C support (e.g. arrays of pointers
      to structs). Requires ACE C runtime libs and linker.

    - Deep Blue C (disk)
      version, year  : 1.2, 1982
      author/company : John Palevich, APX
      available..... : http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20166
                       Source code "Deep Blue Secrets" downloadable at
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20179
      package....... : Compiler, Linker
      features...... : -
      Deep Blue C was originally an independent product, but it
      then became available from APX. It converts C to pseudo-
      code and then interprets the pseudo code (8080 instruction
      set emulation).
      Drawn from Ron Cain's public domain C-compiler (Small-C).

    - DVC C (disk)
      version, year  : 1.05, 1985
      author/company : Ralph E. Walden
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Editor, Compiler, Optimizer, Linker
      features...... : Quite user friendly program
      The compiler generates special object files (.CCC)
      which can be optimized and linked. The package uses a
      special DOS called DVC DOS which contains runtime stuff.

    - LightSpeed C (disk)
      version, year  : 1.08, 1986
      author/company : Clearstar Softechnology
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Compiler, Optimizer, Linker
      features...... : -
      Runs under CLI DOS's and MENU DOS's.
      
    - Tiny-C
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      First sold C compiler by OSS. This compiler was used to
      compile itself! First true language "bootstrap" on any
      8-bit machine (it was also available for Apple and CP/M
      machines). Derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to
      6502 code which emulates the 8080 instruction set.


d) PASCAL

    - Atari Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1982
      author/company : APX
      available..... : APX-20102
      Information at http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20102
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Needs two drives.

    - Draper Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 2.1, 1989
      author/company : Norm Draper
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Kyan Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 1986
      author/company : Kyan Software, APX
      available..... : ?
      package....... : editor, compiler, linker, macro-assembler
                       and manual
      features...... : -
      Kyan Pascal would run off a single floppy. The Atari (APX)
      version needs two drives. A version which runs entirely in
      128k should be available too.


e) LISP

    - INTER-LISP/65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.1, 1981
      author/company : Special Software Systems, DataSoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - INTER-LISP/65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1982
      author/company : Special Software Systems, DataSoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -


f) FORTH

    - ES-FORTH
      version, year  : 1.2, 1984
      author/company : The English Software Company
      available..... : 
                   http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForthESForth
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Seems to be based on fig-FORTH, but with some unique "Words".
      Works with normal DOS.

    - Extended fig-FORTH, (disk)
      version, year  : 11/10/1981
      author/company : Patrick Mullarky, APX
      available..... : APX-20029
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20029
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Extended fig-Forth (disk)
      version, year  : 1.1 Rev. 2.0, 01/15/82
      author/company : Patrick Mullarky, APX
      available..... : APX-20029
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20029
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 1/26/81 and 4/01/82 releases
      author/company : Steven R. Calfee  "Team FORTH"
      available..... : 
                 http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=unknown_fig
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 4/10/82
      author/company : Peter Lipson / Robin Ziegler "Team FORTH"
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 4/1/82 release of fig-FORTH by Steve Calfee

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 5/5/82 - 10/16/82
      author/company : Harald Striepe "Team FORTH"
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 4/10/82 release of fig-FORTH by Lipson/Ziegler

    - fig-FORTH, Antic (disk)
      version, year  : 1.4S REV.H, 18Jun85
      author/company : John Stanley/Antic Magazine "Team FORTH"
      available..... : 
                     http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForthAntic
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 10/16/82 release of fig-FORTH by Striepe

    - fun-Forth (disk)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Joel Gluck, APX
      available..... : APX-20146
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20146
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Grafik-FORTH
      version, year  : 1990
      author/company : RAI Production
      available..... : 
              http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForthGraphicForth
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on fig-FORTH 1.4S and TURBO-GRAPHICS-SYSTEM 256

    - MesaForth
      version, year  : 12/03/81
      author/company : ?
      available..... : 
                      http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForthMesa
      package....... : language, source code, documents, examples
      features...... : -
      based on 6502 fig-Forth. The major difference is in the size of the
      screen on disk (512 bytes instead of 1024 bytes).
      Runs under ATARI DOS 2.0S.

    - QS FORTH
      version, year  : 1.0, 3/27/81
      author/company : James Abanese / [QS] Quality Software
      available..... : http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/LangForthQS
      package....... : Editor, Assembler, I/O routines
                       Single Density 5.25 Floppy and Manual in Binder
      features...... : Editor, Assembler, I/O Routines.
      based on fig-FORTH.

    - Turbo-4th
      version, year  : January 1985
      author/company : Steven R. Calfee
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      compatible with fig-FORTH and Team FORTH. It's fast.
      Not threaded, it is a true compiler

    - ValForth (disk)
      version, year  : 1.1, 1982
      author/company : Valpar International
      available..... : ?
      package....... : (8) disks in the set including: 1)master disk,
      2)display formatter, 3)text compression and auto text formatting,
      4)valDOS-I, 5)valDOS-II, 6)player-missile graphics, character editor and
      sound editor, 7)general utilities and video editor, 8) Turtle &
      valGraphics and advanced floating point routines.
      features...... : -
      based on fig-FORTH

    - X-FORTH
      version, year  : 26 Jan 2003
      author/company : Carsten Strotmann
      available..... : http://www.strotmann.de/twiki/bin/view/APG/ProjXForth
      package....... : binary, source, disk image with samples & editor
      features...... : aims to be compatible with new ANSI standard.
                       works with normal DOS.


g) PILOT

    - Programming Language Pilot Educators Package,
      Pilot with "Turtle" Graphics (CX405) (cart, tape)
      version, year  : 1980, 1981, 1982
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : 
      * Pilot Cartridge (CXL4018)
      * Two demonstration program cassettes (CX4113A/B)
      * Pocket Reference Card C017812 Rev2 - Program (c)1980, Manual (c)1981
      * Pilot Demonstration Programs Users Guide C017810 Rev1 - Program
        (c)1980, Manual (c)1981
      * Pilot Primer: The Pilot Programming Language Instruction Manual
        C017809 Rev2 - Program(c)1980 Atari, Manual (c)1980 Dymax
      * Student Pilot: Reference Guide C017811 Rev1 - Program (c)1980,
        Manual (c)1981.
      features...... : -


h) LOGO

    - Atari LOGO (cart)
      version, year  : 1983
      author/company : LCSI, Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -


i) All the rest

    - Action! (cart)
      version, year  : 1983
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : compiler, editor, monitor and library
      features...... : fast compiler which generates good code
      Needs cartridge for runtime procedures. A PD runtime
      library is also available.
      All variables are static, so recursive routine calls
      are not possible. No floating point type (though a
      PD library should make this possible). No arrays of
      objects (arrays of POINTERS to objects are possible).

    - Extended WSFN, WSFN = Which Stands For Nothing
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Harry Stewart, APX
      available..... : APX-20026
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Info at http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20026

    - Quick (disk)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1990
      author/company : Raindorf Soft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      This is the "poor man's Action!". Same restrictions as
      Action! apply also to Quick. Further restrictions are:
      only simple assignment expressions, no records and no
      pointers.

    - PL65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1987
      author/company : Noahsoft
      available..... : commercial, Extremely rare.
      package....... : compiler, editor, library, sample game
      features...... : Similar features to Action with same restrictions.
      Highly flexible language that includes inline assembler features and
      pointers. Robust and well-engineered editor. Does not require
      additional runtime library - automatically generated and included in
      the compiled code during compilation.

    - Test Computer Language (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1985-1990
      author/company : D.Firth
      available..... : public domain, ?
      package....... : compiler and editor
      features...... : -
            
------------------------------

Subject: 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800?

Contributors: Gene, Larry White, others

Austin Franklin    Austin 80 Console Software
Eastern House      KISS
Eastern House      Monkey Wrench
Eastern House      Monkey Wrench II
Geminisoft/Sar-An  Magic Dump
Geminisoft         Magic Dump II
Radical Systems    Cartridge Maker (eprom burner)
Block              (first right cart/first "backup" program hardware device)
R-Time 8           ICD (battery-backed clock, for left or right cart slots)
Real Time Cartridge  Sunmark, http://www.sunmark.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players?

Contributors to this section: Jeff M Lodoen, Vidar \"Hawk\" Olavesen, Pat
Mulvey, Steven E. Posey (Party Quiz), Andreas Magenheimer, Florian Dingler,
Matthias

a) The following games support 3 simultaneous players:
   (2 players via joystick, 1 player via keyboard)

- Dynakillers by GMG/Slovakia (Freeware!)
- Blastermind by Numbercruncher/Germany (Freeware!)
- M.U.L.E. cracked+changed by CSS/Germany (pirate copy!)
- some more PD and commercial games...

b) The following games support 4-joystick head-to-head play:
   (Only the 400 and 800 computer models sport 4 controller ports)

- Asteroids cart. by Atari,
- Basketball cart. by Atari,
- Dandy disk by APX,
- M.U.L.E. disk by Electronic Arts,
- Maze War disk or cart. by ???,
- Silicon Warrior disk or tape by Epyx,
- Survivor disk or cart. by Synapse,
- Major League Soccer cart. by Thorn EMI,
- Major League Hockey cart. by Thorn EMI,
- Volleyball by ???
  (PD game written in Atari BASIC);
- Tank Battle by Fred Pinho from Antic magazine:
  http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n2/animate.html
- Roadblock by Brian Holness from Compute! magazine
- Battle Room (CIA vs. KGB) a PD game by SNACC
- Aliens a PD-game by ??? using an altered Dandy program
  (the Dandy font and thus the graphics were changed, however,
   the levels remain the same and can be used in both games);
- Sky Warrior by ??? from ROM magazine, June 1984 ***
- Depth Warrior by ??? from ROM magazine, Aug. 1984 ***
- Yellow-Brick-Road by ??? from ROM magazine, Feb. 1984 ***

*** these programs are reported to be 4-player programs, I'm
    not sure if they are meant to be 4-players simultaneously
    or 4-players - one after another (try to find out!);

c) The following games support 8 players on the 400/800 or 4 on the other
computer models, using the 2 controllers-per-port CX30 Paddle controllers:

- Super Breakout by Atari,
- Worms? by Electronic Arts
  (has nothing to do with the PC game!)

d) The following game supports 4 players on all machines, using special
4-button keypad controllers linked together with RJ-11 jacks (standard
phone jacks) to a box with 2 joystick port connectors:

- PQ: The Party Quiz Game by Suncom

e) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra
   hardware called Quadrotron (from the german Atari magazin 2/1989): 
  
- test program for 4 joysticks (and assembler source);
- Quadro-Tron by H.Schoenfeld (4-player Tron-clone);

f) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra
   hardware called Multijoy (multijoy4 for up to 4 players, multijoy8 
   for up to 8 players and multijoy16 for up to 16 players; originally
   developed by Raster/Radek Sterba, but also available from ABBUC):

- Cervi by R.Sterba (up to 8-players Snake-clone);
- Multris by R.Sterba (up to 4 players Tetris-clone)
- Bremspunkt by T.Butschke (up to 4 players Car-race);
- Sheeprace by F.Dingler (1 to 8 players Sheep-race);
- Card Grabber by F.Dingler (2 to 8 players grab-a-card-game);
- Ice-Hockey by F.Dingler (4 to 8 players Icehockey-game);
- Quadrotron-M4 by R.Sterba (patched Quadro-Tron for Multijoy);
- Shot'em All by R.Sterba (16 players shooting-game)

The following are available at:
http://mitglied.lycos.de/gunnarbusse/bajamar/download.htm
- Asteroids, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Basketball, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Tennis, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Dandy, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- M.U.L.E., modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe

------------------------------

Subject: 8.4) What programs run only on the 400 and 800 models, and why?

The following are reported as incompatible with models other than the 
original Atari 400/800.  Most probably do work on XL/XE's if you use a 
translator to run the original 400/800 OS on your XL/XE. 
 
Apple Panic                    Broderbund 
Aquatron                       Sierra On-Line 
Astro Chase                    (by First Star Software) Parker Bros.
Atari Word Processor           Atari
  (this is not the same as AtariWriter!)
Atlantis (some versions!)      Imagic 
Attack at EP-CYG-4             (by Bram) Romox
Bacterion!                     Kyle Peacock/Tom Hudson/ANALOG#20
  ( http://www.cyberroach.com/analog/an20/bacterion.htm
   patch for XL/XE available:
   http://www.cyberroach.com/analog/an20/bacterion_patch.htm )
Bandits                        Sirius Software
BearJam                        Chalkboard
Boulders And Bombs             CBS 
Chicken                        Synapse 
Dancing Feats                  (by Softsync) Romox
Demon Attack                   Imagic 
Dreadnaught Factor, The        Activision 
Drelbs                         Synapse 
File Manager 800+              Synapse
Forbidden Forest               Cosmi 
  (later versions by different companies work ok on XL/XE!)
Fort Apocalypse                Synapse 
  (cart version is 400/800 only! tape+disk versions work ok on XL/XE!)
Galahad And The Holy Grail     APX 
  (Downloadable: http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20132)
Go                             Hayden 
Gorf                           Roklan
Jawbreaker II                  Sierra On-Line
Jet Boot Jack                  English Software 
  (can be found on various tapes/disks; at least the re-release 
   version by Byte Back works alright on XL/XE computers!)
Juggler                        IDSI 
K-Razy Antiks                  K-Byte 
K-razy Kritters                CBS
K-razy Kritters                K-Byte 
Kangaroo                       Atari prototype 
KoalaPainter                   Koala 
Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush      Chalkboard
Leo's Links                    Chalkboard 
Letter Perfect (before v6)     LJK
LogicMaster                    Chalkboard 
Mac/65 [ver. 1.00, orange]     OSS
Mario Bros. ('83)              Atari 
Maze                           Epyx 
Micro Illustrator              Chalkboard
MicroMaestro                   Chalkboard 
Monkey Wrench                  Eastern House
Monster Maze                   Epyx 
Ms. Pac-Man                    Atari 
  (has problems with newer XE/XEGS computers!)
M.U.L.E.(early release only)   Electronic Arts 
Nautilus                       Synapse 
Pac-Man Jr.                    Atari prototype 
Picnic Paranoia                Synapse 
Pool 1.5                       IDSI 
Pool 400                       IDSI 
Protector II                   Synapse 
QS Forth                       James Abanese / [QS] Quality Software
Rack 'Em Up                    Rocklan 
Shamus                         Synapse 
Slime                          Synapse 
Snapper                        Silicon Valley Systems 
Space Dungeon                  Atari 
Squish 'Em                     Sirius 
Super Pac-Man                  Atari prototype
Synassembler                   Synapse
Text Wizard                    Datasoft
Zaxxon (early release only!)   Datasoft 

Konrad M.Kokoszkiewicz writes: 
 
XL/XE software won't work on 400/800 if: 
 
1) it uses shadow RAM at $C000-$CFFF and $D800-$FFFF 
2) it uses RAM expansions at $4000-$7FFF controlled by PORTB $D301 
3) it uses specific XL OS functions (like JNEWDEVC) 
4) it uses illegal XL OS addresses. 
5) it uses European Charset :) 
 
Andreas Magenheimer adds:

To get an overview or see a chart of OS changes from the 800 to the XL
line, refer to Antic magazine Volume 3, Number 2 (June 1984), pages 10-14;
(online: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n2/insideatari.html )
Also note, that some software will not work correct (or not at all) on
newer XE/XEGS versions (which have a new OS with a new version number, 
a new selftest/memory-test/keyboard-test, larger RAM chips, etc. etc.);

Thomas Richter contributes further details (16 Jan 2004):

There are a couple of reasons why some games don't run on the XL/XE
models.  I try to order them by "likeliness", of course biased by my
personal observations:

i) The printer buffer of the XL Operating System in page 3 is a couple
of bytes shorter.  The additional bytes are used for extended OS
variables not available in the 800 series.  Most prominent is the $3fa
location, holding a shadow register of GTIA's TRIG3 signal.  While a
true joystick trigger line in the 400/800 series, this signal is used
as "cart inserted" signal for XL/XE models.  Unfortunately, the OS
compares GTIA trig3 with the shadow register at $3fa in each vertical
blank, running into an endless loop if the register contents don't
match.  This causes hangs for games using page 3 either as copy-buffer
or for player-missile graphics.  (Hangs by Ms. Pac-Man and
Bacterion! are caused by this, and many others...)  This is "fixable"
either by the translator disk, or by a quick hack into the game,
replacing the OS vertical blank or poking TRIG3 frequently into its
shadow.  The reason for the OS behaviour might be that Atari wanted to
prevent crashes if the cartridge is inserted or removed while the
machine is running.  The 400/800 is powered down when a cart is
inserted, the XL/XE lacks the cover of the older models that triggered
a little switch to interrupt the power line.

ii) Similar to the above, writes to $3f8.  This OS equate defines
whether on a warm start, the BASIC ROM shall be mapped back in.  If
its contents are altered, a program triggering a reset as part of its
initialization will find itself then with 8K less RAM occupied by
a BASIC ROM, making it crash.  Similarly, writes to the cartridge checksum
$3eb could cause a cold-start on a "reset initialization".  This is
fixable by the translator disk.

iii) Some games use a four-joystick setup, or at least initialize
PIA itself.  If this happens inadequately, PIA Port B, bit 0 gets changed,
disabling the ROM, and thus crashing the machine.  This is not fixable
by the translator since it is a hardware issue.

iv) Direct jumps into the OS ROM, not using the documented vectors in
the $e450 area.  Interestingly, this fault is not as common as it may
sound since games hardly ever use the OS.  It causes failures of
some "serious applications", most notably "QS Forth" and applications
compiled by it.  This is fixable by the translator disk.

As a side remark, it is interesting to note that no such documented
jump-ins exist for the math-pack ($d800 to $dfff).  It is not really
part of the OS, but looks more like a part of the BASIC interpreter
that didn't make it into the OS because there was no room left.  Thus,
direct jump-ins have to be used here that are documented in the De Re
Atari (for example).  Atari never changed them, but it seems likely
that this documentation happened more or less as an accident since the
same source also lists some mathematics-related jump-ins into the
Basic (namely, to compute SIN and COS and related) that are only valid
for the Rev. A BASIC.  Thus, the math pack might be a couple of
routines that have been originally intended for "private use" of the
BASIC ROM, but then have been found "too useful" by many others to
remain "closed".  Otherwise, it is hard to explain why the otherwise
pretty cleaned-up OS comes with a construction like this.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.5) What programs make use of the Light Gun or a light pen?

Bertrand M. (LEXX) writes: 
 
- Bug Hunt cart. by Atari; 
- Barnyard Blaster cart. by Atari;
- Crossbow cart. by Atari;
- Crimebuster cart. by Atari;
- Operation Blood disk by ANG/Mirage;
- Operation Blood II - Special Forces disk by ANG/Mirage; 
- Light Gun Blaster (PD from Page 6); 
- enhanced Lightgun Blaster (PD from Pedrokko);
- Gangsterville disk by Linda Soft 
  (an italian game written in BASIC); 
- maybe a couple more... 
 
James Bradford mentions: 
"On the 400, the light gun /pen will only work in joystick port 4."  
This renders much light gun and light pen software unusable on the 400. 
 
Andreas Magenheimer adds: 
All Lightgun games can be used with a lightpen (which is not as accurate
as a Lightgun however). And all lightpen programs can be used with a
lightgun. thus add:

- Atari Graphics cart. by Atari
  (a painting/drawing program);
- Matrix a PD game by Dave Oblad
  (a 4-wins or 5-wins clone!)
- Alien Invaders (TB-XL or CTB) disk by R.Gore (available from DGS);
- Bembelwo a PD game by Thorsten Butschke
  (a sort of golf/minesweeper game, written in Quick);
- Sharp Shooter by Mat*Rat a PD game from Analog,
  (also available on cart from Video 61/Lance Ringquist);
- Lightgun Shooter by ??? from ABBUC mag.
  (a simple shooter game, at least PD!)
- Flyshot or Flyshoot a PD game by Kemal Ezcan
  (a Turbo BASIC game from ZONG, the KE Soft magazine);
- Geisterschloss game+editor disk by KE Soft;
- Lightpen Doodle by ??? from Antic magazine;
- Sniper by ??? and Raster (Freeware!);
- Cementario (english = cemetery), PD by Pelusa-Software;
- Invasion, PD by Pelusa-Software Chile;
- Hit the Mole by Phoenix-Softcrew / Carsten Strotmann;
- Hardware-tester by Florian Dingler (tests the following hardware:
  joysticks, paddles, koala pad, touch tablet, lightpen, lightgun,
  multijoy8, video touch pad / kids controller, driving/steering wheel, 
  atari trackball, numeric keypad cx85 and maybe some more devices)
- some more PD programs and utilities for Lightpen or Lightgun;
 
------------------------------

Subject: 8.6) What programs have a track ball mode or support a mouse?

Contributors: Andreas Magenheimer, Mirko Sobe 
 
     Title                                Keystroke Required 
  --------------                         --------------------- 
- Missile Command by Atari               CTRL-T 
- Slime by Synapse                       [T] 
- Shanghai by Activision                 choose controller type: ST mouse ! 
                                         (plug it into port 2; if you do not
                                         have one, you have to reboot!!) 
- Bombdown by Roemer of Uno              choose between Joystick, Amiga 
                                         mouse, ST mouse or CX85 numeric 
                                         keypad (use port 2 for any mice) 
- Minesweeper by Raindorf-Soft           use an ST mouse in port 2 
- The Brundles by KE-Soft                use an ST mouse in port 2 
- The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, PD     use an ST mouse in port 2 
- Geisterschloss by KE-Soft, PD          choose Lightgun (port 1) or ST 
                                         mouse (port 2) 
- Vanish (ZONG, Vol. 5+6/1993);          use an ST-mouse in port 2 
- Hong Kong (ZONG, Vol. 5+6/1993);       use an ST-mouse in port 2
- Maus-DOS (ZONG 5+6/1993);              use an ST-mouse in port 2
- Faecher-Patience (ZONG 1/1993);        use an ST-mouse in port 2
- Macao (Zong 5+6/1994);                 use an ST-mouse in port 2
- Multi-Mouse manager (PD)               drivers for mice, TB, etc. 
- Multiplayer 2.1 by Madteam             supports ST + Amiga mouse in port A
- Unriagh I (german PD adventure)        has drivers for ST mouse+Joystick 
                                         (stick=port 1, mouse=port2) 
- Unriagh II (german PD adventure)       has drivers for ST mouse+joystick 
                                         (stick=port 1, mouse=port 2) 
- little Calculator (AMC-Verlag, PD)     uses ST-mouse only (port 2) 
- big UPN calculator (PD)                uses ST mouse, TB, Touch tab. and 
                                         joystick; (there are different COM 
                                         files, rename the one you wish to 
                                         use to *.EXE; all drivers use port 
                                         1 - if I remember correctly) 
- Operation Blood (ANG/Mirage)           press mouse fire or Select to start
                                         in ST mouse mode (port 2) 
- Operation Blood 2 / Special Forces     press mouse fire or Select to start 
         (ANG/Mirage)                    in ST mouse mode 
- Sprint XL (ABBUC Jahresgabe 1992)      uses an ST mouse in port 2 
- M.O.S. (ABBUC magazine)                uses an ST mouse in port 2 
- Diamond GOS (Reeve software)           all three versions support an ST 
                                         mouse in port 2 
- S.A.M. (Power per Post)                german GUI, supports an ST mouse in 
                                         port 2 
- G.O.E. (TCS)                           supports an ST mouse in port 1 
- BOSS-X (MS-Software, Mirko Sobe)       supports ST-Mouse in Port 2 
 
RE: Missile Command, Andreas writes: 
there are many different versions available... I know the old Atari 800 
cart version, which works correct with Joystick and Trakball, but not at 
all with a mouse. The newer XL version works with Mouse, trackball and 
Joystick, also the newest (built-in) XEGS version of MC. But, there is 
also a tape version (and maybe a disk version) of MC available. I am not 
sure if this tape version behaves like the old 800 version or like the 
newer XL and XE/XEGS versions... 
 
And about mice, Andreas adds: 
Maybe you did not know, there is a little difference between Trackball 
and ST-mouse. Although MC works with both input devices does not mean, 
they are the same. they are not !! Connect the TB to an ST computer and 
you see: it does not work at all !! You have to do a small conversion to 
convert the TB to an ST mouse. (Plans are avaiable from ABBUC, Germany). 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.7) What programs have a paddle(s) or Koala Pad mode?

Andreas Magenheimer contributes: 
 
- Super Breakout (Atari)  breakout clone 
- Live Wire (Analog)   tempest clone 
- Live wire 2 (Analog) tempest clone 
- Planetary Defense (Analog) 
- Pong (Antic)    Pong clone 
- Pong (Analog)   Pong clone 
- Super Ball (Compy Shop Magazin)  Breakout clone 
- Arkanoid (Taito/Imagic)   Breakout clone 
- Koala/Micro-Illustrator (Island graphics/Koala Ware) graphics program 
- Chiseler (Antic or Analog) a breakout clone 
- Slime (Synapse) a slimy shooter... 
- Chicken (Synapse) catch the chicken eggs... 
- One on One (Compute!) a breakout/warlords clone
- Paratroop Attack by David Plotkin
- all Pinballs created with the P.C.S.  
  (use left paddle trigger for left flipper and right paddle trigger for
   right flipper; or simply use a joystick and left/right/fire button); 
- many more Pong and Breakout clones 
  (forgot their names, maybe someone can help here!) 
- many more programs (which I do not remember right now!) 
 
for Koala Pad only: - Micro-Illustrator / Koala Painter 
                    - other Koala Pad painters or programs 
 
------------------------------

Subject: 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode?

Andreas Magenheimer contributes: 

- Bombdown (Roemer of Uno);   
- The Bookkeeper (Atari); 
- Multi mouse Management (PD);  
- UPN calculator (PD);
- Ball Harbour (Zong 8/1992); 
- The Big Quest (Zong 7/1992); 
- Blob (Zong 2/1992); 
- Bomber Jack (KE-Soft); 
- Catch (Zong 6/1992); 
- Code table (Zong 11+12/1993); 
- CX-85-Driver (Zong 7+8/1994); 
- CX-85-Keycode-driver (Zong 7+8/1995); 
- Donald (by KE-Soft); 
- Drag (by KE-Soft); 
- Dragon Fire (Zong 1/1993); 
- Gravitar (Zong 4/1992); 
- Hungry Goblin (Zong 5/1992); 
- Invaders (Zong 5+6/1993); 
- Joshi (Zong 3+4/1993); 
- Lasermaze (by KE-Soft); 
- Lost in the Antarctic (Zong 2/1992); 
- Mampfman (Zong 8/1992); 
- Minipac (Zong 3/1992); 
- Minipac 2 (Zong 6/1992); 
- Money Raider (Zong 2/1992); 
- Monster Tracking (Zong 9/1992); 
- Oblitroid (by KE-Soft)
- Pac-Man (Zong 11/1992); 
- Schlumpf/Smurf (Zong 5/1992); 
- Slurp (Zong 3/1992); 
- Techno Ninja (by KE-Soft)
- Transsylvania (Zong 3+4/1993); 
- Viro-Mania (Zong 2/1993); 
- Zador XL (by KE-Soft)
- Zador II (by KE-Soft)
- many more games from KE-Soft and Powersoft; 
  (forgot their names, help needed!) 

------------------------------

Subject 8.9) What programs have a Touch tablet mode?

Andreas Magenheimer writes: 
 
- Atari Artist (Atari)  graphics program 
- Pixel Artist Deluxe 1.3 (PD) graphics program 
- The Brundles (KE-Soft)  Lemmings clone 
- Musorqua (Analog computing) educational program
- many more (which I do not remember right now!) 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.10) What kinds of extra RAM and RAMdisks can be installed?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

                  (Version 3.5 from January 2004 by A.M.)  
 
A) Atari 400/800 Ramdisks:  
  
- Size:  64k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 3  (total memory = 96k RAM)  
  Types: Axlon (=Atari) and compatibles;  
  
- Size:  128k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 7  (total memory = 160k RAM)  
  Types: Axlon (= Atari) and compatibles;  
  
- Size:  256k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 15  (total memory = 288k RAM)  
  Types: D. Byrd and other selfmade / Axlon-compatible RDs;  
  
- Size:  512k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 31  (total memory = 544k RAM)  
  Types: selfmade / Axlon-compatible Ramdisks;  
  
- Size:  1024k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 63  (total memory = 1056k RAM)  
  Types: selfmade / Axlon-compatible Ramdisks;  
  
- Size:  2048k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 127  (total memory = 2080k RAM)  
  Types: selfmade / Axlon-compatible Ramdisks;  
  
- Size:  4096k XRAM (+32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 255  (total memory = 4128k RAM)  
  Types: selfmade / Axlon-compatible Ramdisks;  
  
=> Note that all so-called Axlon "compatible" (256k-4096k) Ramdisks  
   normally do not homebank when RESET is pressed (a fix should be  
   available somewhere), whereas original Axlon Ramdisks do homebank  
   properly !!  (Special thanks to Lee Barnes for this note !!)  
  
B) XL/XE - 64k base RAM plus XRAM:  
  
- Size:  64k (total = 128k RAM, 4 banks)  
- Banks: E3, E7, EB, EF   (block E = 1 block * 4 banks)  
- Types: 130XE-Ramdisk, Turbo-Freezer-XL + 64k, selfmade-ramdisks...  
  
- Size:  128k (total = 192k RAM, 8 banks)  
- Banks: A3,A7,AB,AF,E3,E7,EB,EF   
         (blocks AE = 2 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: Compyshop 600XL with 192k, Turbo-Freezer-XL + 128k,   
         selfmade-RDs...  
  
- Size:  256k / 26AE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks: 23,27,2B,2F,63,67,6B,6F,A3,A7,AB,AF,E3,E7,EB,EF  
         (blocks 26AE, = 4 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: Compyshop 800XL RD., Compyshop 130XE RD.,   
         Peters/David Megaram 1, Peters/David Megaram 2,   
         Peters/David Megaram 3 with 256k, selfmade RDs...  
  
- Size:  256k / 8ACE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks: 83,87,8B,8F,A3,A7,AB,AF,C3,C7,CB,CF,E3,E7,EB,EF  
         (blocks 8ACE = 4 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: Newell, Rambo-XL, Scott Peterson, Atari Magazin,   
         TOMS, selfmade-RDs...  
  
- Size:  512k / 26AE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks: 21,23,25,27,29,2B,2D,2F,61,63,65,67,69,6B,6D,6F,  
         A1,A3,A5,A7,A9,AB,AD,AF,E1,E3,E5,E7,E9,EB,ED,EF  
         (blocks 26AE = 4 blocks * 8 banks)  
- Types: none (that I know of) at the moment - but possible!  
  
- Size:  512k / 8ACE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks: 81,83,85,87,89,8B,8D,8F,A1,A3,A5,A7,A9,AB,AD,AF,  
         C1,C3,C5,C7,C9,CB,CD,CF,E1,E3,E5,E7,E9,EB,ED,EF  
         (blocks 8ACE = 4 blocks * 8 banks)  
- Types: Scott Peterson, TOMS, selfmade-RDs...  
  
- Size:  512k / 02468ACE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks: 03,07,0B,0F,23,27,2B,2F,43,47,4B,4F,63,67,6B,6F,   
         83,87,8B,8F,A3,A7,AB,AF,C3,C7,CB,CF,E3,E7,EB,EF;  
         (blocks 02468ACE = 8 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: 1) upgrade / combination of 26AE and 8ACE ramdisk   
         types to 512k RAM or to *one* 02468ACE ramdisk;   
         idea by me, built by Bernhard Pahl (see his homepage   
         at http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/ramdisk)  
         2) Upgrade of the Rambo XL to 512k by Dan Schmid   
         (see Pooldisk Too, Subdir ACE/ Acec202a.ATR and   
         Acec202b.ATR) and of course 3) selfmade ramdisks...  
  
- Size:  1024k / 02468ACE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks: 01,03,05,07,09,0B,0D,0F,21,23,25,27,29,2B,2D,2F   
         41,43,45,47,49,4B,4D,4F,61,63,65,67,69,6B,6D,6F   
         81,83,85,87,89,8B,8D,8F,A1,A3,A5,A7,A9,AB,AD,AF   
         C1,C3,C5,C7,C9,CB,CD,CF,E1,E3,E5,E7,E9,EB,ED,EF  
         (blocks 02468ACE = 8 blocks * 8 banks)  
- Types: Newell, Scott Peterson, TOMS, Satantronic`s 1MB-  
         PC-SIMM-RD, selfmade-RDs...  
  
- Size:  1024k / 26AE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks: EF,EE,ED,EC,EB,EA,E9,E8,E7,E6,E5,E4,E3,E2,E1,E0   
         AF,AE,AD,AC,AB,AA,A9,A8,A7,A6,A5,A4,A3,A2,A1,A0   
         6F,6E,6D,6C,6B,6A,69,68,67,66,65,64,63,62,61,60   
         2F,2E,2D,2C,2B,2A,29,28,27,26,25,24,23,22,21,20   
         (blocks 26AE = 4 blocks * 16 banks)  
- Types: Mathy van Nisselroy`s 1024k XEGS-PC-SIMM-Upgrade!  
         (with some changes probably also usable for XL and XE,  
         see also: http://www.mathy-van-nisselroy.nl/) 
  
- Size:  1024k / 8ACE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks: EF,EE,ED,EC,EB,EA,E9,E8,E7,E6,E5,E4,E3,E2,E1,E0   
         CF,CE,CD,CC,CB,CA,C9,C8,C7,C6,C5,C4,C3,C2,C1,C0   
         AF,AE,AD,AC,AB,AA,A9,A8,A7,A6,A5,A4,A3,A2,A1,A0   
         8F,8E,8D,8C,8B,8A,89,88,87,86,85,84,83,88,81,80   
         (blocks 8ACE = 4 blocks * 16 banks)  
- Types: none (that I know of) at the moment - but possible!  
  
- Size:  1024k / 0123456789ABCDE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks: blocks 0123456789ABCDE each with 4 banks   
         = 16 blocks * 4 banks (does not make much sense, but...)  
- Types: luckily, none at the moment...  
  
- Size:  1024k / ??? (max. memory = 1088k, 64 banks)  
- Port-Bits / Control-Bits: $D301 = 2,3,6,7   
                            $D600 = 0,1 (or switches);  
- Banks: $D301: 23,27,2B,2F,63,67,6B,6F,A3,A7,AB,AF,E3,E7,EB,EF  
         $D600: F3,F7,FB,FF...   
- Types: David/Peters Megaram 3 with 1024k RAM (and the switches   
         positioned to 1 x 1024k)  
  
- Size:  2048k / 02468ACE (total = 2112k, 128 banks)  
- Banks: 00,01,02,03,04,05,06,07,08,09,0A,0B,0C,0D,0E,0F   
         20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,2A,2B,2C,2D,2E,2F   
         40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,4A,4B,4C,4D,4E,4F   
         60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,6A,6B,6C,6D,6E,6F   
         80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,8A,8B,8C,8D,8E,8F   
         A0,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9,AA,AB,AC,AD,AE,AF   
         C0,C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,CA,CB,CC,CD,CE,CF   
         E0,E1,E2,E3,E4,E5,E6,E7,E8,E9,EA,EB,EC,ED,EE,EF   
         (blocks 02468ACE = 8 blocks * 16 banks)  
- Types: selfmade-Ramdisks...  
  
- Size:  2048k / 0123456789ABCDEF (total = 2112k, 128 banks)  
- Banks: 01,03,05,07,09,0B,0D,0F,11,13,15,17,19,1B,1D,1F,   
         21,23,25,27,29,2B,2D,2F,31,33,35,37,39,3B,3D,3F,   
         41,43,45,47,49,4B,4D,4F,51,53,55,57,59,5B,5D,5F,   
         61,63,65,67,69,6B,6D,6F,71,73,75,77,79,7B,7D,7F,   
         81,83,85,87,89,8B,8D,8F,91,93,95,97,99,9B,9D,9F,   
         A1,A3,A5,A7,A9,AB,AD,AF,B1,B3,B5,B7,B9,BB,BD,BF,   
         C1,C3,C5,C7,C9,CB,CD,CF,D1,D3,D5,D7,D9,DB,DD,DF,   
         E1,E3,E5,E7,E9,EB,ED,EF,F1,F3,F5,F7,F9,FB,FD,FF;   
         (blocks 0123456789ABCDEF = 16 blocks * 8 banks)  
- Types: selfmade-Ramdisks...  
  
- Size:  4096k / 0123456789ABCDEF (total = 4160k, 256 banks)  
- Banks: 00,01,02,03,04,05,06,07,08,09,0A,0B,0C,0D,0E,0F   
         10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,1A,1B,1C,1D,1E,1F   
         20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,2A,2B,2C,2D,2E,2F   
         30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,3A,3B,3C,3D,3E,3F   
         40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,4A,4B,4C,4D,4E,4F   
         50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,5A,5B,5C,5D,5E,5F   
         60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,6A,6B,6C,6D,6E,6F   
         70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,7A,7B,7C,7D,7E,7F   
         80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,8A,8B,8C,8D,8E,8F   
         90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,9A,9B,9C,9D,9E,9F   
         A0,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9,AA,AB,AC,AD,AE,AF   
         B0,B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9,BA,BB,BC,BD,BE,BF   
         C0,C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,CA,CB,CC,CD,CE,CF   
         D0,D1,D2,D3,D4,D5,D6,D7,D8,D9,DA,DB,DC,DD,DE,DF   
         E0,E1,E2,E3,E4,E5,E6,E7,E8,E9,EA,EB,EC,ED,EE,EF   
         F0,F1,F2,F3,F4,F5,F6,F7,F8,F9,FA,FB,FC,FD,FE,FF   
         (blocks 0123456789ABCDEF = 16 blocks * 16 banks)  
- Types: Newell, FTE, selfmade-Ramdisks...  
  
Well, I will not go into details with the disadvantages and   
software-problems with ramdisks beyond 512k RAM (Selftest, XL/XE Basic,   
RAM under the OS, separate Antic access, etc.). These problems mostly   
occur with 1 Megabyte or bigger ramdisks and there are several hardware  
and software solutions for them, alas not working correct with every   
software or program. With 4 Megabyte extra RAM / Ramdisk, the PIA is   
fully used/adressed, so that normally the base RAM at 4000-7FFF is not   
available any longer. But again, there are tricks and solutions to solve   
this problem. Installing a second PIA for example makes it possible to   
adress up to 256 Megabytes of extra RAM / Ramdisk - but who needs so much   
RAM on the Atari 8Bit computer ???  
  
C) XL/XE - XRAM minus 64k Base-RAM:  
  
- Size:  192k / 8AE (total = 256k RAM, usable = 12 banks)  
- Banks: 83,87,8B,8F,A3,A7,AB,AF,E3,E7,EB,EF   
         (8AE = 3 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: older Newell ramdisks (replace 64k by 256k);  
  
- Size:  192k / ACE (total = 256k RAM, usable = 12 banks)  
- Banks: A3,A7,AB,AF,C3,C7,CB,CF,E3,E7,EB,EF   
         (ACE = 3 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: newer Newell RDs, newer Buchholz-RDs, Rambo-XL,   
         selfmade Ramdisks (replace 64k by 256k)...  
  
- Size:  448k / 2468ACE (total = 512k, usable = 28 banks)  
- Banks: EF,EB,E7,E3,CF,CB,C7,C3,AF,AB,A7,A3,8F,8B,87,83   
         6F,6B,67,63,4F,4B,47,43,2F,2B,27,23     
         (2468ACE = 7 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: selfmade-RDs (replace 64k by 512k)...  
  
- Size:  896k? / 0248ACE (total = 1024k, usable = 56 banks)  
- Banks: EF,ED,EB,E9,E7,E5,E3,E1,CF,CD,CB,C9,C7,C5,C3,C1,   
         AF,AD,AB,A9,A7,A5,A3,A1,8F,8D,8B,89,87,85,83,81,   
         4F,4D,4B,49,47,45,43,41,2F,2D,2B,29,27,25,23,21,   
         0F,0D,0B,09,07,05,03,01 (0248ACE = 7 blocks * 8 banks)  
- Types: Bob Woolley`s 1200XL 1MB Upgrade, selfmade-RDs   
         (replace 64k by 1024k)...  
  
Allthough these RAM upgrades are relatively easy to build  
(and to install into the computer), they make problems with  
quite some software. Some programs tend to use the base RAM  
as extra RAM / Ramdisk with these upgrades, which will most  
often result in a crash of the computer. Next, most extra RAM   
testers will show more extra RAM (or a bigger Ramdisk) than   
there is really available (e.g. with a 256k upgrade you will  
see 240k extra RAM, but there is only 64k base RAM + 192k  
extra RAM). Alas, this is a typical hardware problem for these  
upgrades and it cannot be solved or avoided with software...  
  
D) XL/XE: Parallel-Bus-Devices:  
(600XL/800XL = Parallel Bus, XE = Cart.-Port + ECI)  
  
- Size:  64k / E (total = 128k RAM, 4 banks)  
- Banks: E3,E7,EB,EF (block E = 1 block * 4 banks)  
- Types: Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 64k XRAM 
 
- Size:  128k / AE (total = 192k RAM, 8 banks)  
- Banks: A3,A7,AB,AF,E3,E7,EB,EF (blocks AE = 2 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 128k XRAM  
  
- Size:  256k / 9ABE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks: 93,97,9B,9F,A3,A7,AB,AF,B3,B7,BB,BF,E3,E7,EB,EF  
         (blocks 9ABE = 4 blocks * 4 banks)  
- Types: Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 256k XRAM  
  
- Size:  256k / ??? (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks: unknown !!  
- Types: Yorky-XL by Richard Gore / Derek Fern (from   
         GB/UK) with 256k XRAM  
  
- Size:  256k / ??? (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks: unknown !!  
- Types: Multi-Input-Output-Harddisk-Interface (MIO) with 256k   
         XRAM by ICD  
  
- Size:  1024k / ??? (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks: unknown !!  
- Types: Multi-Input-Output-Harddisk-Interface (MIO) with 1024k   
         XRAM by ICD  
  
E) XL/XE: RAM/Flash-ROM/... Cartridges:  
  
- Rambox II with 256k RAM by JRC (Czech Republic; with special   
  Ramdisk drivers for TT-DOS and Bewe-DOS!)  
- Ramcart 64k by LK Avalon (Poland) 
- Ramcart 128k by LK Avalon (Poland; binaries of the Eprom and GAL 
  chips of this cart can be found on ABBUC magazine 64) 
- Ramcart 256k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
- Ramcart 512k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
- Ramcart 1024k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
  (for some hints and pics see: www2.asw.cz/~kubecj/acarts.htm)  
- Flash-ROM cart 128k / 1Mbit "Atarimax" by Stephen Tucker  
  (allthough they are not usable as extra RAM / Ramdisk at the moment,  
  I am quite sure that it is possible to write some drivers and thus  
  use the Atarimax Flash-ROM carts as extremely fast floppy drives!)  
- Flash-ROM cart 1024k / 8Mbit "Atarimax" by Stephen Tucker  
  (for information and complete documentation plus software see:  
  www.atarimax.com/flashcart/documentation/index.html )  
- and many others I do not know and I do not have any info about;  
  
Even cartridges can be used as Ramdisks (= fast floppy drives),  
especially RAM-carts or Flash-RAM carts. But they function like  
most other Super- or Mega-Carts, meaning the bank-switching  
techniques are also used there. Since the subject carts and  
bank-switching carts is quite enormous, I will not discuss it or  
present any information here. Just try to find a large description  
by John K. Picken ("RAM/ROM Control on an XL/XE") if interested in that  
subject (e.g. at Jindrich Kubec`s homepage: www2.asw.cz/kubecj/... ).  
  
Finally thanks and credits for this subject and lots of (used /   
borrowed) information therefore go to: Lee Barnes, Russ Gilbert,   
Mathy van Nisselroy, Erhard Puetz, Mathias Reichl, Ron Hamilton,   
Wes Newell, Guy Ferrante, XI of Satantronic, Bernhard Pahl, Walter  
Lojek and Voy/Dial. Also thanks to John K. Picken who wrote an  
excellent article about A8 extra RAM / Ramdisks and A8 cartridges and  
their technique of bank-switching. Well, if you still find errors, bugs, 
mistakes, etc. in this list, then tell me *nicely* or in a friendly  
way. Any updates and corrections can be send to:  amp@abbuc.de  
-Andreas Magenheimer  

------------------------------

Subject: 8.11) What programs support more than 64K RAM?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

        (This is version 3.5 from January 2005 by A.M.) 
Alternate Reality: The City added 2005.08.01
 
The following Atari 8Bit programs support more than 64k RAM, but still 
work alright (with multiple loads / disk-swaps) on standard 64k machines:   
 
a) "TOOLS" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
A-Base                   (???, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Alphasys-Sample Software (Mirage/ANG, 64k XRAM, block E),  
A-Text                   (???, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Atari Writer 80          (Atari, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Atari Writer Plus        (Atari, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Basic XE                 (OSS/ICD/FTE, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Bewe-DOS 1.x             (Bewesoft, up to 1024k RD, all banks),  
Bibo-DOS 5.x             (Compyshop, up to 256k RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE),  
Bibo-DOS 6.x             (Compyshop, up to 256k RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE),  
Datei 4.x                (N. Schlia, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/26AE),  
Desktop Atari            (HBSF, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Diskworker               (Petsoft, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Diskcommunicator 3.x     (Robert "Bob" Puff, if there is more than 64k  
RAM, answer the startup question with "Y" to use it as XRAM or with "N"  
to use it as Ramdisk; up to 256k XRAM: E/AE/ACE/8ACE; RD = DOS depend.),  
DOS 2.5                  (Atari, original driver = 64k RD, block E; other  
                          drivers: up to 2x 128k Ramdisks, E/AE/8ACE),  
DOS II+D Version 6.x     (S. D., up to 2x 128k RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
DOS XE 1.x               (Atari, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Extended Atari Basic     (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Extended Turbo Basic     (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Fampy 2.3                (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Fampy 6.1                (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Howfen DOS 3.x           (???, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Howfen DOS 4.x           (???, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Howfen Tape to Disk      (???, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Inertia 2.x              (MadTeam, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/8ACE),  
Midi Mate II             (Hybrid Arts, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Pattern Editor      (Raster, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Player              (I. Kuczek, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Recorder            (I. Kuczek, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Sequencer           (M. Sygit, 64k XRAM, block E),  
MSC-IDE-Software         (M. Belitz + S. Birrmanns, 64k XRAM, block E),  
My-DOS 3.x               (Wordmark, up to ???k Ramdisk),  
My-DOS 4.x               (Wordmark, up to 1024k Ramdisk, all banks),  
Paperclip II             (Batteries Included, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Super DOS 2.x            (P. Nichols, up to 2x 128k RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE),  
Super DOS 5.x            (P. Nichols, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),   
The [Sparta DOS] Browser (Tom Hunt, up to 1024k Ramdisk, RD-driver dep.),  
The Sound Utility        (Tom Hunt, up to 1024k XRAM?, bug-free only under 
Sparta/Bewe-DOS, one can choose between 64k/128k/256k/576k/1088k RAM, alas
all setups with more than 64k RAM produced some strange sound noises on
my 576k XL when playing waves or samples...),  
Theta Music Composer 2.x (Jaskier, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Turbo DOS 1.x            (Reitershan, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Turbo-DOS 2.x            (Reitershan, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Top-DOS 1.x              (R.K. Bennett, 64k Ramdisk, block E),  
Top DOS Plus             (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k Ramdisk),  
Top DOS Prof.            (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k Ramdisk),  
Typesetter               (XLent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
X-DOS 2.x                (S. D., up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),   
X-RAM 0.21               (Satantronic, tests up to 4 MB!, all banks!) 
and most Text-Editors (e.g. Speedscript, Antic Writer, T-Edit, Page 6
Writer, Compyshop Editor,  
Textpro, etc.) as long as they are running under a DOS 2.x (meaning a DOS 2  
derivative) or Sparta / Bewe DOS and the appropriate Ramdisk driver...; 
 
b) "Games" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
Adalmar                  (Falk Buettner, 64k Ramdisk, block E),
Alternate Reality: The City  
Alternate Reality: The Dungeon (Philipp Price, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Bop N'Wrestle            (Mindscape, 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Brundles             (KE-Soft, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/26AE),  
Human Torch & the Thing  (Questprobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Megablast 1              (Thorsten Karwoth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Mental Age               (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
[The Amazing] Spiderman  (Questprobe, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
c) "Demos" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
ABBUC Magazine Intro 52  (Heaven, 64k XRAM, block E),  
ABBUC Magazine Intro 55  (Heaven, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Anime 4ever              (Sente Software Group, 256k XRAM, 8ACE),  
Grafik + Sound Demo      (Peter Sabath, 64k XRAM, block E),  
I. K. Plus Demo          (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Sweet Fantasy            (Tight, 64k XRAM, block  E),  
The Top 3 Demo           (WFMH, "Veronika Part", 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
 
Thanks and credits for this subject go to: Bernhard Pahl, Russ Gilbert,  
Ron Hamilton and Mathy van Nisselroy for sharing some information with me. 
- Andreas Magenheimer 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.12) What programs require more than 64K RAM?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer. 
   
          (This is version 3.5 from January 2005 by A.M.) 
 
The following Atari 8Bit programs require more than 64k RAM, and thus 
do not work at all (or not alright/bug-free) on standard 64k machines:   
 
a) "Tools" that require more than 64k RAM: 
 
128k Memory Testers      (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Bank/Mem.-Testers  (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E),   
130XE Sectorcopiers      (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E), 
130XE Utilities          (HAPS PD 0031, 64k XRAM, block E),  
192k Memory Testers      (some PD programs, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
256k Memory Testers      (Newell, ICD, etc., 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),  
320k Mem. Testers 8ACE   (Atari Mag., TOMS, etc., 256k XRAM, blocks 8ACE), 
320k Mem. Testers 26AE   (Compyshop, etc., 256k XRAM, blocks 26AE),  
576k Memory Testers      (Peterson, TOMS, etc., 512k XRAM, blocks 8ACE),  
1088k Memory Testers     (Newell, TOMS, etc., 1MB XRAM, blocks 02468ACE),  
4160k Memory Tester      (Newell, 4MB XRAM, blocks 0123456789ABCDEF), 
APC Archiver 1.x         (LBS/APC, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),   
APC Packer 1.x           (LBS/APC, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
A. W. P. Super Menu      (Ken Siders, min. 64k XRAM, block E), 
A. W. P. XE Super Menu   (Ken Siders, min. 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),   
Audio/Studio Master      (Mirage/ANG, 256k XRAM, 26AE only?),  
Boot Majster             (Electron, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Boss X [Vers. 10.x]      (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64k Ramdisk, block E; 
with MyDOS 4.x it supports up to 1MB RD, subdirs and up to 16MB HD part.),  
Boss XE [Vers. 8.x]      (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64k Ramdisk, block E; 
with Turbo-DOS or MyDOS 4.5x it supports bigger Ramdisks, but no subdirs!), 
CAD XE                   (HAPS PD 0350, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Diskettenverwaltung XE   (ABBUC PD 86, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Draw XE                  (ABBUC PD 387, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Dream Vision             (ABBUC PD 480, 192k XRAM, blocks ACE?),  
Fraktale & Colorprint    (P. Woetzel, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Grafik Zeilen Editor     (HAPS PD 0296, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Hires Dump               (ABBUC PD 113, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Inertia 3.x              (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to 
                          256k XRAM, AE/ACE/26AE/8ACE with almost any DOS), 
Inertia 4.x              (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to 
                          1024k XRAM - all possible bank combinations!),  
Macro Assembler XE       (T. Karwoth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Macro Assembler XE+      (T. Karwoth, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up 
                          to 1024k XRAM - all possible bank combinations!),  
Masher XE                (???, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to  
                          256k XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE),  
Menu 130                 (Les Howarth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Mate III            (Hybrid Arts, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Monitors, Debuggers, ... (HAPS PD 0109, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Multi DOS 130            (Kuchera/Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Multi DOS 320            (Kuchera/Excellent, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Multi Tasking OS         (???, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
MTOS 256                 (Tom Hunt, 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),  
MTOS XE                  (Tom Hunt, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Neo-Tracker 1.x          (Epi, min. 64k XRAM, block E; under MyDOS 4.5x  
or Sparta DOS X cart. it supports up to 1MB XRAM, all bank combinations!)  
Newspaper Editor         (HAPS PD 0294, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Protracker 1.5           (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to  
                          256k XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Rechnen fuer Kinder      (ABBUC PD 85, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Rund um die Ramdisk      (ABBUC PD 383, HAPS PD 1084, contains info texts  
and pgms. for upgrading the 800 or XL/XE and testing its XRAM up to 1 MB;  
the docs use english language and provide detailed information for Axlon  
compatible 800 XRAM and Newell/Buchholz/Peterson compatible XL/XE XRAM),  
Sample Art XE            (Mozart/WSL, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
to 1024k XRAM, all bank combinations, alas the program is faulty/buggy!),  
Shrink XE                (P. Fitzsimmons, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Snapshot                 (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Tape Ramdisk Drivers     (Pokey, SAG, etc., 64k XRAM, block E),  
Text 130                 (B. Russmann, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Textpro "+" [e.g. 4.54+] (Ronnie Riche, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Textpro 5.x              (Ronnie Riche, 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Code Cruncher 2.x    (Soused Teat, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Code Cruncher 3.x    (Soused Teat, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Cruncher 5.x         (MSL/Magnus, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Small Printery       (W. Lojek, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
                          to 1024k XRAM, all bank combinations!),  
The [Sparta DOS] Wedge   (Ed Bachmann, 64k XRAM, block E, sep. Antic!),  
The Works                (Tom Hunt, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
Wuerttemberger Disk      (ABBUC PD 361, HAPS PD 1050, 64k XRAM, block E;  
mainly/only because side 2 contains the XE version of Gizmo's castle),  
XL-2                     (J.K. Picken, min. 64k XRAM, block E; under MyDOS 
                          or Sparta DOS it supports up to 1024k XRAM !),  
Zeitungsredakteur        (ABBUC PD 121, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
b) "Games" that require more than 64k RAM:  
 
Castle of Blackthorne    (T. Graef, 64k RD, block E),  
Cavepack XE              (XE-version by K. Ezcan, 64k RD, block E),  
Computer Baseball        (D. Blackwell, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Der Neffe                (XE-version by ???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Gizmo's Castle           (XE-version by M. Kugler, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Kaiser II                (128k version by C. S., 64k XRAM, block E), 
Kaiser II                (320k version by C. S., 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Minesweeper 1-4          (4 versions by J.R. Chicko, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Mister X                 (S. Soelbrandt, 64k RD, block E),  
Oelbaron                 (XE-version by ???, 64k RD, block E),  
Space Harrier            (C. Hutt, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Strategy Baseball        (HAPS PD 0302, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Yie Ar Kung Fu           (???, 256k XRAM, blocks ??? - This game is a real 
shame [Such a Shame, Talk Talk], since it does not work on a real Atari  
computer! Maybe it works on an emulator, maybe it does not work at all ?),  
Zargon XE                (ABBUC PD 611, HAPS PD 0485, 64k XRAM, block E),  
 
Please note, that hackers, crackers and pirates also made file versions  
of (most of) the XE / XEGS 64k and 128k carts available. Due to cart. 
bankswitching, a 64k XL/XE was enough for these super-carts; not so with 
the file versions, they do (mostly) require more than 64k memory... 
Next, there are also "un-official" (pirated, hacked, cracked, patched)  
cart. versions of former disk-based games, that require XRAM, which they  
originally did not (example: Conan, the multi-stage disk-version by  
Datasoft requires 64k RAM, whereas the single-stage version of the  
Sunmark multicart. req. 128k RAM). Since Sunmark will continue producing 
A8 carts and other programable / flashable carts (like the Atarimax Flash 
cart. by Steven Tucker) are on the market today, it is quite likely, that  
more games will occur in the Atari scene with the same behaviour... 
 
c) "Demos" that require more than 64k RAM:  
 
130XE Artshow            (HAPS PD 0013, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Autoshow           (HAPS PD 0637, ABBUC PD 191, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Demo               (S.A.G., 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Impossible Demo    (R. Haegemann, 64k XRAM, block E),   
3D Scroll                (Jaskier/TQA, 64k XRAM, block E),  
American Natives         (Fox-1, 192k RD, Ramdisk = DOS dependant), 
Amiga Boink XE           (B. Armour, 64k XRAM, block E),   
Animkom. meet B. V.      (Animkomials + B.V., 64k XRAM, block E),  
(The) Asskicker          (Shadows, 64k XRAM, block E; hold Select!), 
Back to Life 2           (Jaskier/TQA, 256k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Base 33                  (AIDS, 256k XRAM, hold SHIFT for setup!),  
Bill Pie Demo            (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
                          to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames),  
BMW Animation            (Mirko Sobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Brull                    (Pin/Trs, 1MB XRAM for a sample demo), 
CES XE Demo              (full 580 sectors version by XANTH, 64k XRAM,  
block E; includes the Swan-, Fuji-Boink- and Robot-Demo all in one file!), 
Cogito Demo              (AIDS, uses blocks 8C, thus 8ACE only!),  
Critical Sounddemo       (Innovative, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Danielle (Gr.9) Ani      (B. Kendrick, 64k XRAM, block E),  
DoXEpin                  (AIDS, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Edelweiss Demo           (A.R.+C.S.S.+S.V.L., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Ergo Bibamus             (Quasimodos, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Extract Slideshow        (Replay/Bit Busters, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Fat Bottomed Girls       (???, 64k XRAM block E for a Queen sample), 
Forever 1ktro            (New Generation, 64k XRAM block E for a 1k demo), 
Forsaken Love            (New Generation, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE; simply 
delete "BANKS.DAT", reboot and create a new one for your kind of XRAM!), 
Glasshead Demo           (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Halle 1994: The Wormhole (Magic Arts, 256k XRAM, 26AE only!), 
Hardware Demo            (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Igor Demo (Side A)       (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E - use 128k.BAT), 
Igor Demo (Side B)       (MadTeam, 128k XRAM, blocks AE - use 192k.BAT),  
Igor Demo (Side A+B)     (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only - use 320k.BAT),   
Imperial Sounddemo       (Innovative, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Impossible but Real      (MacGyver, 192k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Incredible               (Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Inside Out               (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Isolation Demo           (M.E.C., 64k XRAM, block E),  
Journey Demo             (Boot version by Polynomials, min. 64k XRAM,  
                          block E; supports up to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE),   
Journey Demo             (File version by MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block  
                          E; supports up to 192k XRAM: AE/ACE),  
Journey into Sound       (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Khai Et                  (AIDS, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, SHIFT for Setup!), 
Killer Whales Ani        (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E, supports up 
                          to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames!),   
Landscape-XE Demo        (Karl Pelzer, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Manga Ani                (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E), 
Megablast Sounddemo      (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64k XRAM, block E),  
MTV's Danielle           = Danielle (Gr.9) Ani,  
Nascar Ani               (M. Sobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Nonjm Demo               (Tight, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Numen Demo               (Taquart, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup!),  
Ogluszacz Sounddemo      (AIDS, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Owca Demo                (Animkomials, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Owca 2 Demo              (Animkomials, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Pacem in Terris          (Quasimodos, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup),  
Parrot XMAS Demo         (A. Ramos, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Pedrokko Sounddemos      (a collection of 10 disks / 20 sides by Pedrokko,  
                          the player program assumes a 64k RD, block E),  
Raving Vierpz            (Pentagram, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Raytracing Ani/128k      (K. Pelzer, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Raytracing 320k          (Elsni / S. Elsner, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Raytracing 1088k         (Solocoder of A.C.E., 1024k XRAM, works only on  
K.P. 1MB Megaram III, 8 bootdisks, loading time approx. 17 minutes !!),  
Reditus Demo             (Zelax, 192k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup),   
Render Ani               (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
Revenge of Hacker        (Rasero Team, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
Running Cow ASCII Ani    (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Sheol Demo               (Bit Busters, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Shiny Bubbles            (XE version by B. Paul, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Stash 98 Demo            (Rasero Team, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE via a buggy 
setup: 1) for 8ACE XRAM press A in the 1st or 2nd menu, 2) for 26AE press 
B in the 1st menu and C in the 2nd menu; don't use the CS auto-setup!), 
Starwars Demo            (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
The Wormhole             (Magic Arts, 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Timekeep(er)             (New Generation, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only! wait!),  
Tit Demo                 (Mad Team, 192k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Too Hard 2 Demo          (Animkomials, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Too Hard 3 Demo          (Animkomials, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
Too Hard 4 Demo          (Animkomials, 256k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Total Dazed              (Tight, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Trabant Demo             (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Trip 6                   (Shadows, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Turtles Demo             (Ultra Software, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Ultra Demo               (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Ultra 2 Preview          (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E, unfinished!),  
Vengeance                (Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Vent XE                  (Exc.+Pentagram, 64k XRAM, block E),  
WAF-Demo                 (W.A.F., diskside B = 64k XRAM, block E),  
Worms Demo               (Datri, 256k XRAM, 8ACE otherwise buggy!),  
X-Demo                   (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 26AE),  
X-Files Ani              (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E),  
X-Files 2 (TV-Ani)       (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Xyberscape XE            (XE version by Bill Le Masurier, 64k XRAM, E), 
Zero Demo                (New Generation, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
 
Thanks and credits for this subject go to Russ Gilbert, Bernhard Pahl,  
Ron Hamilton, Mathy van Nisselroy and Stephan Pollok for sharing their 
information with me. Any corrections and/or updates are welcome...  
-Andreas Magenheimer 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.13) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- S.A.M. - the Software Automated Mouth by Don't Ask Software (a 
  software package; you can find it at Don`s / the author's homepage:
  http://www.retrobits.net/)
- Softsynth (a PD program, that creates sounds and sound effects via
  modulation of the tv/monitor speaker; available from the ABBUC library);
- MOD-Sounds (sound-MODulation, allthough I do not know any software to
  create such sounds on an A8, some programs to edit (Protracker) and
  playback (Inertia, Modplayer, Neotracker, etc.) these sounds do exist);

------------------------------

Subject: 8.14) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

There is already a lot of stereo software for the upgraded Atari computers
available, of course most of these programs are limited to certain/special
upgrades and merely perform their stereo effects on these items (with
otherwise upgraded or non-upgraded Ataris, the sounds or programs will
only play in mono):

a) software for the various stereo-upgrades:

- stereo with one Pokey (POPS-software): Afaik for this kind of upgrade,
  there merely exists a patched version of the Pokey player program, I am
  not sure if there is anything else for it; anyway, refer to Analog 
  Computing, issue 66, november 1988, pages 54 -60;

- stereo with two computers (thus two Pokeys): Afaik for this simple trick
  there merely exist two programs, they are "Perestroyka" and "Sky 
  Network" by T.Liebich. In order to achieve the stereo effect, you
  have to boot/load one of these demos on two computers (connected to
  different TV's or monitors, there is no need to connect the computers to 
  each other!). When done, press 1-5 on the first computer while pressing
  Shift-1-5 on the second computer. Meaning, if you want to hear the first 
  sound in stereo then press 1 on computer 1 and press Shift-1 on 
  computer 2 simultanously (that`s a little tricky, I know). If you want
  to hear sound 5 in stereo, then press 5 on computer 1 and Shift-5 on
  computer 2 simultanously. Tricky at first, but sooner or later you will
  get the hang of it. Of course you can also connect the two Ataris to
  a hifi-system, using the sound output of one Atari for the left channel
  and the sound output of the other Atari for the right channel...

- stereo-sound with Stereo-Blaster Pro (Portronic/AMC): Afaik there was
  at least one demo disk (early version was single-sided only, later 
  versions were double-sided), that contained some demo-software, namely
  the simple "Stereo-demos" (by AMC, side 1) and the "Stereoblaster-Demo"
  (by HU-Soft, side 2 if available). The Stereoblaster demo was written 
  in Turbo-Basic and played back via Compiled-Turbo-Basic, it uses Chaos
  Music-Composer Sounds (*.CMC) and a few of these provide stereo effects,
  if equipped with a stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system. The simple 
  stereo-demos included some programs written in Atari Basic, for example
  a (pong-like) bouncing ball and a flying helicopter. Equipped with a
  stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system, one could see the ball bouncing
  left and right and simultanously hear the sound fx on the left or right
  channel. The helicopter started at the left side and produced a loud 
  sound on the left channel, when it was flying to the right side, the 
  sound faded on the left channel and got louder on the right channel, 
  until the helicopter disappeared (and the sound completely faded away). 
  There were some more of these simple demos available, but I don`t 
  remember them anymore.

- Stereo with two Pokeys: There already exist dozens of sounds and demos,
  that support this upgrade, most of these programs were made in Poland,
  but a few sound-demos were also made in other countries. Anyway, the
  following programs support stereo via two Pokey chips:

  - Alf-Demo by the Unknown Base (Netherlands);
  - Alpha-Demo by GMG (Slovakia);
  - AMS-Stereo player by ??? (author unknown), USA;
    (there are at least two AMS-stereo-players, that let you play
     *.AMS sounds in true stereo or at least simulated stereo!);
  - ARS-Mori 16k Intro by Tristesse (music shortened and ripped from
    Drunk Chessboard by Infinity!), Poland of course;
  - Ballada sound by DJ V / BK (Poland);
  - Base 33 by AIDS (msx by Greg, Poland);
  - Chaos Music Composer version x.x patched by ??? , Poland;
    (=> the original version by Janusz Pelc / LK Avalon is only mono,
     but there is a patch available, as well as various patched CMC
     versions on the internet; thus *.CMC sounds can be generated in
     stereo!);
  - (many) *.CMC sounds created by one of the many stereo-versions of 
    Chaos Music Composer;
  - Cogito-Demo by AIDS (Poland) 
  - Do you see the light? sound-demo by Roemer of UNO (Germany);  
  - Draconus, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK)
    (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!);
  - Drunk Chessboard by Infinity (music by X-Ray!), Poland;
  - Dynakillers (Game) by GMG, Slovakia;
  - First of All (sound) by Raster, Czech Republic;
  - Impossible but Real Demo by MacGyver (Poland);
  - King of Aggregat by X-Ray / Slight (Poland); 
  - Megaplayer Versions 1.6 and 2.0 by MacGyver (Poland)
    (=> and thus all *.CMC, *.MPT, *.TMC, etc. sounds played with
     this sound-player tool can be heard in true or simulated stereo!);
  - Multi-Pro-Tracker 2.4 (various versions) by Jaskier/Taquart?
    (=> thus *.MPT sounds can be generated in stereo!), Poland;
  - (many) *.MPT sounds created by the stereo-version of Multi Protracker;
  - Nazebany by DJ V / BK (Poland); 
  - Overload sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland);
  - Raster Music Tracker 1.x by Raster, Radek Sterba (a PC program 
    that creates mono/4-channels or stereo/8-channels *.RMT sounds that 
    can be played back on the A8 or any Atari 800/XL/XE emulator);
  - (most) *.RMT sounds created by Raster Music Tracker;
  - Stereo-Patch for Pokey Player by ??? (author unknown)
    (=> thus all Pokey-Player / *.V sounds can be heard in stereo!);
  - Stereo-Patch for Softsynth by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands)
    (=> thus Softsynth will create stereo-sounds!);
  - Stereo Patch for World of Wonders by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands)
    (World of Wonders is a great Softsynth sound-demo!);
  - Still Alive (TMC-sound) by Greg, Poland;
  - Time sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland);
  - Theta-Music-Composer version 1.x by Greg (Poland)
    (=> thus *.TMC sounds can be generated in stereo!);
  - (most) *.TMC sounds created by Theta Music Composer;
  - Vanity sound by Kuchara / Excellent (Poland) ;
  - Worms (320k-Demo) by Datri, Czech Republic;
  - Zybex, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK)
    (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!);
  - thats all what I found so far... (A.M.)

b) software for other sound enhancements:

- enhanced-sound with Covox: Afaik this upgrade will playback digitised or
  sampled sound in 8Bit resolution rather than in 4Bit resolution. The 
  following programs support the Covox-Upgrade:
  - Inertia 2.9, a MOD-player by MadTeam;
  - Inertia 4.5, a MOD player by MadTeam;
  - Protracker x.x, a MOD-editor and player by ???;
  - NeoTracker 1.x, a MOD+NEO+... player by EPI/Allegresse;
  - that's all I have found so far; 
note that all programs (except neo-tracker?) will still work with pokey...;

------------------------------

Subject: 8.15) What games support online action via modem?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

- Modem Chess, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Modem-Battleships, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Tele-Chess, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Jelly Beans a ML game by Chris Martin
- "Battleships ST-XL" by Florian Dingler
  (ok, thats not the actual name, but describes the gameplay)
- probably some more games...

(I have also seen an advert from GCP in Analog or Antic, that listed
 the following games: The City, Cybertank, Cybership, Bio-War, Lords
 of Space; I am not sure if they are all available for the Atari, A.M.)

To play these games online, one would not only require an Atari computer,
but also a modem, a modem-driver and/or a terminal program (like Kermit,
Bobterm, Teleterm, A-Term, Ice-T, BBS Express Pro, etc.). See also the
sections 7.8, 10.1 and 10.2 which tell you more about modem/terminal
programs and modem hardware for the Atari. Emulator users have it a little
easier and can use the built-in modem emulation in Ape-DOS, Ape-Win,
Atari 800 DOS, Atari 800 Win, etc. and thus do not require any extra
hardware or drivers or such...

------------------------------

Subject: 8.16) What programs support Atari computer networking?

This section by Andreas Magenheimer.

There are two different hardware add-ons which provide a "computer- 
network" (two or more Ataris linked together). Thus, there is software 
that supports either one or the other hardware (namely Gamelink-1 or
Gamelink-2). The following software supports the networking hardware:

- Gamelink-1 (by Dataque): 
  - info-text about GL-1 and where to buy it, by Dataque;
  - Tic-Tac-Two by J.Potter/Dataque, a tic-tac-toe clone; 
  - Modem-Battleships, patched by Rick Detlefsen for Gamelink-1;

- Gamelink-2 / Multilink (by Dataque & Bewesoft):
  - info-text about GL-2 and where to buy it, by Dataque;
  - info text about Maze of Agdagon demo, by Dataque;
  - Maze of Agdagon demo (1 player only) by Dataque;
  - documentation for Maze of Agdagon (full version) by Dataque;
  - Maze of Agdagon (full version, 2-8 players) by Dataque;
  - description of multilink/gamelink-2 hardware and schematics by
    Bewesoft (two texts, one in czech and one in english; schematics
    presented as an Atari Gr.8 picture for a) easy-2-computer hardware
    and b) more complicated 2-8 computer hardware);
  - Multi-Dash (2-8 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - Multi-Race (2-16 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - description of "how to program networking games for multilink
    [gamelink-2] hardware" (text available in english and czech, with
    lots of source codes and OS adresses/variables/...) by Bewesoft;
  - Multi-Worms (2-8 or 2-16? players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - complete + documented source code for Multi-Worms by Bewesoft;
  - "starter-kit" module to use in your own networking-games by Bewesoft
    (free use of this module is granted by Bewesoft/Jiri Bernasek);

------------------------------

Subject: 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari?

ARC.EXE for MS-DOS was released by System Enhancement Associates (SEA) around
1985.  It will compress and store groups of files as one file, making it
easier and quicker to download programs and support files at once. Because of
the ease of use and availability of this program, it quickly became the
defacto standard for file archives on Intel-based IBM machines.  Files
compressed and stored with ARC or a compatible utility are normally given the
filename extender ".arc".

The 8-bit Atari computers have several software utility options that are fully
compatible with ARC.EXE, the most important being:

Super UnArc 2.4 and Super Arc 2.4 - shareware by Bob Puff, released 01/31/89
Available: 
http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/superarc.arc (complete package + docs)

Also, SpartaDOS X includes a fully compatible ARC command for both creating
and extracting .arc files.

------------------------------

Subject: 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there?

It is now common, especially when working on Windows PCs or Macs, to work with
Atari software as files or "images" containing the data from an entire disk,
data cassette, or cartridge as duplicated from the native media for the Atari.

Here is a list of file formats, arranged by their associated filename
extensions.  These are all filename extensions used to name files containing
entire 8-bit Atari floppy disk images, cassette tape images, or cartridge
images.

.DCM -Image format invented by Bob Puff for his Disk Communicator 3.2 utility.
      Used when working with native Atari hardware.
      DISKCOMM is at http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/DISKCOM.ARC
      DCM specs at: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/diskcomm.zip

.ATR -Image format invented by Nick Kennedy, for his SIO2PC project.
      Used with most 8-bit Atari emulators running on other computer
      platforms.  SIO2PC is at http://www.cox-internet.com/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

.XFD -Image format invented by Emulators Inc, for their ST Xformer emulator.
      Identical to ATR except without the 16 byte header.
      Used with ST Xformer and PC Xformer emulators.
      Xformer is at http://www.emulators.com/
      
.PRO -Image format invented by Steven Tucker, for his APE ProSystem device.
      Used with APE, the Atari Peripheral Emulator.
      APE and APE ProSystem are at http://www.atarimax.com/

.SCP -SpartaDOS SCOPY image file. SCOPY was a utility by ICD.

.DI  -Image format invented by Kolja Koischwitz & Christian Kruger for their
      800XL DJ emulator for the Atari ST.

.CAS -Cassette image format invented by Ernest R. Schreurs, for his 
      Digital Cassette Image system (includes CAS2SIO, WAV2CAS, and CAS2WAV
      MS-DOS utilities.  See: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/
      
See also:
Atari Disk Image FAQ  (Steve Tucker)
http://www.atarimax.com/ape/docs/DiskImageFAQ/
  
One tool for converting among all of these disk image formats is:
Acvt v1.07 by Jindrich Kubec, found at http://jindroush.atari.org/

Preston Crow's collection of conversion utilities:
http://www.crowcastle.net/preston/atari/

------------------------------

Subject: 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software?

Russ Gilbert writes:

Almost all commercial software for the A8 is/was copy protected.  For boot
disks, this usually involved a large number of special formatting that
couldn't be copied using ordinary sector copiers.  Usually the boot process
involved checking to see if a certain sector error occurred, then proceeding.
If the error did not occur, the disk was a copy and would not work.

For carts, usually the method of protection was to write to the cart area of
memory and see if the value changed.  If the value changed, the cart program
was in RAM, not ROM and would fail to operate.

For tapes, again a fair number of schemes were used.  Some varied the speed at
which the tape loaded.  I'm not familiar with tape protection schemes.

With all software media (cart, tape, disk), there may be program encryption,
which must be decrypted before the program can run.  This to make more
difficult disassembly of the program.

There were/are a number of products to defeat copy protection/allow copying of
protected software for the A8.  The most common way to defeat copy protection
was to disassemble the software and revise sections of code so that the copy
protection was defeated.  A software with defeated copy protection is called a
'cracked' software.  The basic procedure is to understand how cart/tape/disk
software initializes, loads and runs.  Usually make a file out of the software
and 'follow the code', starting with loading of the program, to decryption to
the actual running of the program.  Today, it is unnecessary to copy original
commercial A8 software because it has already been defeated and may be found
at a few FTP sites. 

Besides 'cracking' software, there were/are hardware devices to copy
commercial protected software.  The Happy 1050 and the Archiver, and probably
other modifications to the 810, or 1050 allowed 'bit image' copying and
reproduction of the special formatting that copy protected disks had.  Using
these archiving disk drives, a copy of the original disk, including all
special formatting and the original code is copied, thus making a copy
protected copy, not cracked, just like the original.

For carts, copying could involve cracking or again there were/are products to
reproduce the cart and simulate a ROM.  Or the cart might be copied and burned
on the correct type of eprom, to make a plug in cart.  'The Impersonator', the
'Pill' are two cart copy schemes copy the cart to a file, then don't change
the code, but use a 'dummy cart' to fool the software into thinking there is a
ROM present.

Basic tools for copying, then cracking, carts and disks are a sector editor
and disassembler.  Carts are usually most easily dumped using a special OS,
like Omnimon, to interrupt the cart and dump memory to disk.  There are a few
pd cart copiers that have the user plug the cart in when the program is
running, I don't believe these pd cart copiers are very good or very wise to
use.

So, the basic answer to 'how do I make a copy of my copy protected commercial
software' is don't bother.  Find it on the net.

There is one exception, in that this 'solution' involves a minimum of effort
and is relatively safe.  I refer to 'Chipmunk' and 'Black Patch' software to
make cracked boot disk copy of commercial disks.  HOWEVER, even if you use
these two commercial archival tools, be sure you write protect your originals,
and be careful not to accidentally write to the original disk.

Finally, I'll mention a very modern (I mean 1997) product.  The APE ProSystem,
by Steven Tucker, in the registered version of this shareware allows making
disk images called 'Pro' images.  APE (Atari Peripheral Emulator) requires a
cable, called the SIO2PC cable, that connects the A8 13 pin serial port to a
serial port on the IBM PC clone.  To make 'Pro' images, a special adapter
cable is needed, not just the 'standard' SIO2PC cable.  The 'Pro' image can
'capture' the copy protection of an original commercial disk.  The 'Pro' image
can then be loaded into an A8 using the APE registered version software, thus
backing up your original disk software.  Note the 'Pro' image will only be of
use to person(s) owning registered APE software and 'Pro' adapter cable.

------------------------------

Subject: 10.1) What programs can log in to other computers via modem?

Here are some of the more popular PD/freeware/shareware terminal emulator and
related programs available.  Use one of these programs for accessing a dial-up
Bulletin Board System (BBS) with your Atari, or for accessing a dial-up "shell
account" with your Internet Service Provider (ISP).  Dial-up shell accounts
are no longer widely available here in the 21st century!  (There is no
general-purpose PPP capability for the 8-bit Atari that I am aware of.)

ATAR-Z-MODEM 1.2, 5/29/94, shareware by Larry Black
     Emulates: n/a
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0
     File Xfer: ZMODEM download
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: no
     Summary: Intended to be used as an external ZMODEM receive utility in
       conjunction with other terminal programs, especially BobTerm
     http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Telecomm/Protocols/atzmod12.arc

BobTerm 1.23, 1993, shareware by Bob Puff
     Emulates: VT52
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     File Xfer: XMODEM, YMODEM, FMODEM
     Autodial: Yes
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Feature-filled; best for BBSing
     Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/ (version 1.21 complete package)
     http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/datacom/bobt123.lzh (ver. 1.23)

FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51, freeware by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell)
     Emulates: VT100, IBM ANSI
     Text: 80 column via a special Graphics 0 screen (no hardware req'd)
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Fast and complete VT100 emulation; readability a minus
     ftp://ftp.spudster.org/pub/atari/cth/terminal_programs/FLICK051.ARC

Ice-T XE v2.72 (128K XL/XE) or Ice-T 800 v1.1 (48K), 1997, by Itay Chamiel
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 80 column via a fast-scrolling graphics 8 screen
     File Xfer: X/Y/ZMODEM download
     Autodial: Yes (2.72) or No (1.1)
     Backscroll buffer: Yes--8 screens (2.72) or One screen (1.1)
     Capture-to-disk: Yes--up to 16K (2.72) or No (1.1)
     Summary: Outstanding flicker-free high-speed VT100 emulation.Recommended!
http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Telecomm/Terminals/icetx272.arc
http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Telecomm/Terminals/icet800.arc (1.1)

Kermit-65 3.7, PD by John R. Dunning
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. in gr.8; 80 col. w/ XEP80 (sort of)
     File Xfer: Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Excellent VT100 emulation; rock-solid Kermit Xfers
     filenames:   k65v37.arc ; k65doc.arc - docs ; k65src.arc - source

OmniCom by CDY Consulting (David Young)
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 80 columns in gr.8
     File Xfer: XMODEM, Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Only option combining VT100, XMODEM, Kermit
     filename: omnicom.arc

PabQwk 2.0, 1 Feb 1994, shareware by Low-Budget Productions (Pab Sungenis)
     Requires: 128K XL/XE
     Emulates: n/a
     File Xfer: QWK upload/download
     Summary: The Professional QWK reader for the Atari 8-bits.  (QWK is a
     packet format created in the IBM BBS community for reading mail
     offline.) 
     ftp://ftp.spudster.org//pub/atari/cth/magazines/stack/pabqwk20.zip

Term80 1.6 (8.25.95), by CTH Enterprises (Tom Hunt)
     Requires: MIO or Black Box
     Emulates: ANSI
     Text: 80 columns in gr.8
     File Xfer: XMODEM receive, YMODEM send/receive     
     Autodial: Yes
     Brackscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Designed for calling IBM ANSI BBSs at the highest possible
        speeds supported by the MIO and Black Box (14.4 Kbps)
     Available: http://cth.dtdns.net/Featured/term80/term80.html

VT850 B1, shareware by Curtis Laser
     Emulates: VT100/VT102 (plus complete VT220 keymap)
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Only option for VT100 emulation on the XEP80; 1200bps top speed
     filename: vt850b1.arc

------------------------------

Subject: 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari?

"A BBS, plain and simple, is some hobbyist setting up their own computer to
answer incoming calls from other hobby computers.  The visiting person
leaves messages on this computer for other visitors, plays games while
visiting, sends and receives files, and all that." -- Greg Goodwin, 2005

The 8-bit Atari was particularly popular for hosting a dial-up Bulletin Board
System (BBS). 

This section attempts to list all BBS programs for the Atari.  Of these, BBS
Express! Professional and Carina II BBS seem to be programs that stand up well
even today.

Contributors to this section include: Winston Smith, Steven Sturza, Chad
Hendrickson, Don Fanning, Matt Singer, Pete Davis, Jeff Williams, Rod Roark

  o  AMIS BBS --  The Atari Message Information Service, public domain.
The "granddaddy" of BBS programs for the 8-bit Atari.

The AMIS BBS was written in BASIC by people from the Michigan Atari Computer
Enthusiasts.  It included designs for a ring-detector.  You needed a sector
editor and had to allocate message space by hand, hex byte by hex byte.

Several versions of AMIS:
     *  Standard AMIS
     *  MACE AMIS - from the Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts
     *  Fast AMIS
     *  MPP AMIS by Matt Pritchard
     *  TODAMIS 1.0, for 1030/XM301, 1986, Trent Dudley

  o  ATABBS -- Rod Roark writes (3/12/03):
                This is really straining my memory -- don't recall exactly
                when I wrote the thing (maybe '80 or '81), but as far as I
                know ATABBS was the world's first BBS for the Atari 400/800.
                
                I ran it out of my condo in Atlanta on a 48K 400 with an 80K
                floppy drive and a 300 bps Hayes Smartmodem.  The 48K memory
                module was a third party add-on, not Atari's.
                
                It was written in Atari BASIC with a few bytes of machine
                language thrown in.
  
  o  ATKeep --  An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS, by Brent Barrett
ATKeep is a Citadel-like BBS system for eight-bit Ataris.  ATKeep runs under
SpartaDOS and requires BASIC XE and 128K of RAM.  Originally "MBBBS (Message
Base Bulletin Board System) 1.0, March 24th, 1986" MBBBS was changed to Atari
Keep, or, ATKeep for short, around version the time version 4.0 was released
(June 15, 1986).

ATKeep 7.0 finally took the aide and cosysop commands out of a menu section
and put them into extended commands, where they belonged.  It also added a
SYSOP level command set.  Users were no longer "users" "aides" or "cosysops,"
they had become level "A" (SYSOP) through level "Z" (READ ONLY).  The system
had become extremely complex. Public, hidden OR password protected PRIVATE
rooms.  Each room now had its own access level (thus keeping people of lower
level from getting in EVEN if they knew the room name).  Each room was
assigned a RWRT (or Read WRiTe status), which determined who could enter
messages in it, and whether or not public or private messages, or both were to
be allowed.

Before version 7.0, ATKeep only worked with the Atari 1030 or XM301 modems.
ATKeep 7.0 was rewritten to accomodate the 850 or PRC interface allowing use
of any Hayes compatible modem.

ATKeep version 7.50 was released (1987), was version 8 released?

  o  BBCS -- Bulletin Board Construction Set, by Scott Brause/Antic, 1985
A machine language program, developed as the Jersey Atari Computer Group
(JACG) BBS system.

BBCS was known for it's great flexibility.  The sysop was offered easy
customization by the use of menus.  Many BBSes before it required that you had
to actually change the BASIC code in order to customize your BBS.

Unfortunately, it also suffered from a reputation for stability problems.

  o  BBS Express!  -- 1986, Leith Ledbetter/Orion Micro Systems
Written in compiled Action!.  1030/XM301 and 850 versions.

  o  BBS Express! Professional ("Pro!")--6.0b 1999, Lance Ringquist/Video 61
Originally by Keith Ledbetter/Orion Micro Systems.
See also http://cth.dtdns.net/pro/pro1.html

Written in 100% machine language.

Requires XL/XE, SpartaDOS 3.2+, hard drive highly recommended, or at least a
large ramdisk.  R-Time 8 is fully supported.

  o  Carina II BBS -- v2.7 (1995), David Hunt/Shadow Software
Carina II was originally developed by Jerry Horanoff.

Requires an XL or XE computer, at least 500K of storage capacity (including
ramdisk and drives), and SpartaDOS version 2.3 or greater.
Recommended: 192K ramdisk or greater, and an R-Time cartridge.
Fully supported: An MIO interface and a hard drive.

Pete Davis writes (15 Aug 2002):
Carina was a pretty powerful BBS system.  Though it was written in BASIC (with
a number of machine language routines), it was expandable and had was able to
load new BASIC programs with the BBS running.  In fact, it was quite modular
and would load different sections of the BBS at runtime.  I actually used it
when I ran a BBS some time back.

  o  Carnival BBS -- essentially AMIS with an overlay to allow for private
                     messages and passwords.

  o  FoReM BBS --  Friends of Rickey Moose BBS.  By Matt Singer.
At the time, there were a lot of BBSs around called things such as "FORUM-80"
and "BULLET-80", ergo the name.  FoReM BBS was the first truly RBBS-like BBS
for the ATARI 8-bit.  It was programmed in BASIC and was somewhat crashy.  I
think that this is the great-grandparent of the FOREM-XE BBSs that survive
today.

Matt Singer writes:
FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS. When multiple message areas were
added the name was extended to FoReM 26M.  Then, When OSS released BASIC
XL the program was rehacked and called FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most
of the Assembler routines (where is he now?).

  o  FoReM XL BBS -- by Matt Singer.
FoReM BBS updated to take advantage of BASIC XL from OSS.

  o  FoReM XE BBS -- by Matt Singer
This version of FOREM BBS requires the commercial BASIC XE cartridge in order
to run.  It is in the public domain and can import and export messages from
the Atari PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only, control ATASCII graphics are
reserved for message data-structure bytes). 

  o  FoReM XE Professional BBS / FoReM XEP BBS -- by Len Spencer
A re-write of FoReM XE BBS, last version was 5.4, Jan 5 1993.
FXEP requires an XL/XE computer with at least 128k of memory, the BASIC XE
cartridge from OSS/ICD, SpartaDOS 3.2 (this program will NOT work with any
other version), and at least 500K of storage.

FXEP is in the public domain, http://members.aol.com/lenspencer/

  o  NITE-LITE BBS --  Paul Swanson's BBS with RAM disk.
Paul Swanson was a programmer from the Boston, Massachusetts, USA, area.

"1983: Nite-Lite B.B.S. goes on the air. (Was it running A.M.I.S. ?) It is
called "Nite-Lite" because the computer monitor casts an eerie glow about the
room.  1984: Paul Swanson writes his own BBS hosting software for the ATARI
6502 8-bit computer.  He names it "Nite-Lite".  The Nite-Lite BBS hosting
software goes on to be the most successful commercial BBS software ever
written for the ATARI 6502 8-bit computer.  1989: Nite-Lite BBS puts in a
second line. (MichTron boards eventually take the place of all of the ATARI
Nite-Lite boards.)" - Winston Smith

This BBS was the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul Swanson called a "V:"
device for "virtual disk".  This BBS was written in Atari BASIC and required a
joystick hardware "dongle" device.  This was notable as being one of the first
Atari 8-BIT BBSs that could actually go for a week without having to be
rebooted.  Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari "very long
string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous).  The BBS would only have problems
(for the most part) if this string became corrupted.

  o  OASIS (the commercial version) / OASIS Jr. (the pd version)
The original OASIS BBS System was written by Rich Renner and Ralph Walden with
tech support and input from Leo Newman.  It was first published by OASIS BBS
Systems (Renner/Walden/Newman) in 1986, and distributed by Leo Newman.  Later,
the rights were transferred to Glenda Stocks/Z INNOVATORS, then later (1991)
to Jeff Williams ("Alf").

All machine language.  OASIS is very crash-resistant and comes with a "dial
out" screen so that the Sysop can use the BBS as a terminal program to call
and fetch files without having to bring the BBS down and reload a terminal
program.  OASIS supports "Door programs" which it refers to as "OASIS PAL
modules".  An excellent message system, and a complex file system.  It
consists of "file libraries" with suites of "file types".  There is quite a
bit of overhead involved in performing a download (which may be a good thing,
as it discourages file hogs).  OASIS IV performs networking.  SpartaDOS 3.2x
recommended, but any DOS supported.  R-Time 8 clock cartridge supported.

Glenda Stocks writes at http://world.std.com/~snet/glenda.htm :
I purchased the source code rights to OASIS and began marketing the BBS
software to Atari 8-bit enthusiasts around the world.  I felt that I had the
superior BBS software because I had programmed in the ability to run external
programs, including online games and user surveys.  I also had added color
prompts for IBM clone users who called Atari boards running my OASIS software.
Sometime in 1991...I sold the rights to OASIS to a man in Canada..

Jeff Williams ("Alf") writes: (12/6/02)
OASIS was around prior to either PRO or BBS Express IIRC. I don't know when
exactly it showed up, version 3.09 was the first one I remember seeing. What
made it nifty was it was very fast, being all assembler, and having some
different features that things like Forem & Carina didn't have. Compared to
something like Forem MPP at the time, it was kind of amazing.

Ralph Walden sold it to Glenda Stocks, who chopped it up into modules and sold
it as ver 4.7.  PRO was out by then, and was a much more complete offering
imo.  Glenda wrote some modules for 4.7, but it never really went anywhere
because the architecture was so cramped with her changes.

Eventually she gave up and sold me the source. I looked it over and realized
it was a mess and nothing was going to happen with it. I worked on a version 5
for a while, but never made much progress.

  o  SMART BBS --  by Marco Benton.
This program is written entirely in BASIC.  It expects to be running under a
SpartaDOS environment.  This BBS program uses a "modem clock string" rather
than an R-Time 8 cartridge in order to retrieve the current time.  It also
comes with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage".

------------------------------

Subject: 10.3) How can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an MS-DOS PC?

There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work with an
Atari-format 5.25" diskette.  Each of these work with the Atari SS/DD 180K
format, so you'll need an Atari DOS and disk drive capable of this format. 

#1 Choice:
Atari-Link PC (AtariDsk) V1.2 (c) 95-12-09 by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl)
Ataridsk is a program for MSDOS-PCs that allows you to access Atari floppy
disks in double density (180k). All you need is a PC (XT or 286 should be
sufficient) and a 5.25" floppy drive. Features of this tool:
    * Menu driven user interface
    * read, write and format Atari disks on the PC
    * small size (only 35k)
http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/ 

Also by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl):
  WriteAtr V0.92b
  With WriteAtr you can write double density ATR-images to Atari floppy disks
  on your MSDOS-PC. You can also create ATR-images of double density floppy
  disks! All you need is a PC and a 5.25" and/or a 3.5" floppy drive.
  Version 0.92b added experimental support for the enhanced density (1040
  sectors/128 bytes per sector) format. Please note: this format doesn't work
  with a lot of floppy controllers - use it at your own risk!
  http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

#2 Choice:
MyUTIL by Mark K Vallevand.  Based on Charles Marslett's UTIL.
  http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/myutil.zip
  Includes SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to access 180K SpartaDOS disks

Other similar utilities:
ATARIO by Dave Brandman w/ Kevin White - Reads SS/DD 180K Atari disks.
  www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Unverified/Diskutils-redist/atario21.arc
SpartaRead by Oscar Fowler - Reads SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks.
  http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/sr.arc
UTIL by Charles Marslett - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180K Atari disks.
  http://www.wordmark.org/

Here's some advice on using the above utilities from Hans Breitenlohner:

There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between
DD Atari drives and PC drives.

1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 rpm instead of 300 rpm).
   If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors on the PC, it is
   possible that the header of the next physical sector will be overwritten,
   making that sector unreadable.  (The next physical sector is usually
   the current logical sector+2).  The solution to this is to format all
   disks on the PC.
       (Aside:  Does anybody know how this problem is handled on the
        XF551?  Is it also slowed down?)
     Konrad Kokoszkiewicz answers:
     "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are spinning
     300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with read/write disks
     formatted and written on normal Atari drives (288 rot/min), the main
     crystal frequency for the floppy disk controller is 8.333 MHz
     (not 8 MHz, as in 1050, for example)."

2. If the PC drive is a 1.2M drive there is the additional problem of the
   track width.
   The following is generally true in the PC world:
    - disks written on 360k drives can be read on either drive
    - blank disk formatted and written on 1.2M drives can be read on
      either kind
    - disks written on a 360k drive, and overwritten on a 1.2M drive,
      can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive.
    - disks previously formatted on a 360k drive, or formatted as 1.2MB,
      and then reformatted on a 1.2M drive to 360k, can be read reliably
      only on a 1.2M drive.
    (all this assumes you are using DD media, not HD).

   Solution: Use a 360k drive if you can.  If not, format disks on the
   Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank disks on the PC
   for PC to Atari transfers.

Jon D. Melbo sums it up this way:
   So a basic rule of thumb when sharing 360KB floppies among 360KB &
   1.2MB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1.2MB drive to a disk that
   has been previously written to in a 360KB drive....UNLESS... you only
   plan on ever using that disk in the 1.2Mb drive from then on out. Of
   course a disk can be reformated in a particular drive any time for use
   in that drive.   As long as you follow that rule, you can utilize the
   backwards compatible 360KB modes that most 1.2MB drives offer.

While the above mentioned utilities work with SS/DD 180K Atari-format disks or
SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks, the following combination of utilities has been
used successfully to read SS/SD 90K Atari-format disks.  So if you only have
standard Atari 810 and/or Atari 1050 drives, you could look into:

AnaDisk -- now a product of New Technoligies Inc. (NTI)
See: http://www.forensics-intl.com/anadisk.html
The current version is "not made available to the general public" (!)
Previously a product of Chuck Guzis @ Sydex, http://www.sydex.com/
Older versions available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/
- Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" diskette

DeAna by Nate Monson 
Available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/
- converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari format

See http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/ for tips on using this
combination of utilities.

Preston Crow writes:
  "As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to read
  FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), then you
  can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the contents
  to a file with AnaDisk, and then using Deana.com to convert the
  dump file into a usable format.

  For enhanced density disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first
  portion of each sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for
  a PC drive to read enhanced density disks."

------------------------------

Subject: 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari?

Several 3rd-party hardware upgrades add the capability of working with
MS-DOS diskettes to your Atari system:

Happy 1050 upgrade for the Atari 1050
 -- read/write 180K 5.25" MS-DOS floppies

CSS XF Single Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551
 -- replace the 5.25" mechanism with a 3.5" mech.
 -- read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
    see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm

CSS XF Dual Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551
 -- add 3.5" drive without losing the 5.25" drive
 -- read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
    see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm

CSS Floppy Board, for the CSS Black Box
 -- adds support for PC 720K and 1.44MB 3.5" drives to your Atari system
 -- adds support for PC 1.2MB and 360K 5.25" drives to your Atari system
 -- read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks in your PC drives with your Atari
    see: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?

This section by Russ Gilbert.

Q:  How do I connect two computers using a null modem cable?
 
A:  You need a term program and RS 232 ports on both
    computers.  The RS 232 ports need to be connected
    together using a 'null modem cable'.
 
    For up to 4800 baud, no flow control lines need be
    connected.  Just cross the transmit and receive lines
    and join the grounds together.  Transmit is pin #2,
    receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25 pin
    port. 25 pin #2 goes to Atari #4 (XMT to RCV), 25 pin
    #3 goes to #3 on Atari (RCV to XMT) and #5 of 850 goes
    to #7 of 25 pin (GND to GND).
 
    The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D'
    connector is #1.  There are 13 holes on this 'long'
    side, 12 holes on the 'short' side.  The numbers go
    to the left 1 to 13 then #14 is under #1 and left again
    so that #25 is under #13.
 
    Most term programs allow a null connection, without a
    carrier detect.  Notably, '850 Express!' does not. I have
    only used 'Procomm 2.4.3' (the last shareware version of
    Procomm) on the PC and BobTerm on the Atari, but other
    term programs may work.
 
    To check your null modem connection, start both PC and
    Atari term programs, set baud to 2400 or 4800 on both
    computers. No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit on the PC.
    Be sure to use the correct COM port on the PC.  Go to
    'terminal' mode and you should now be able to type on
    either computer and see it on the other screen. To
    accomplish a file transfer, use Y-modem probably from
    BobTerm, rather than X-modem. X-modem will often append
    bytes to a file transfer, an undesirable event. There is
    also a very nice Z-modem recieve program for the Atari,
    called ATAR-Z-MODEM by Larry Black for the Atari.
 
    A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about
    30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors
    (Radio Shack) some three or more conductor cable. Using
    the two DB25 female connectors allows unplugging your
    modems and plugging in the null modem cable into the two
    modem cables.  This also avoids the confusion of
    variations in the computer ports. Most computers connect
    into the modem end via a standard RS232 DB25 connection.
    With this both ends 25 pin cable, you would cross pins 2
    and 3 and connect the #7s together to make a null modem
    cable.
 
    The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly. An
    850, P:R: Connection, MIO, Black Box or similar device
    that provides an RS232 port must be used.
 
 
    Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS 232 C
    port.
1.  Protective Ground        12.  Select Alternate Rate
2.  Transmit Data            15.  Transmit Clock (sync)
3.  Receive Data             17.  Receive clock (sync)
4.  RTS (Request to Send)    20.  Data Terminal Ready
5.  CTS (Clear to Send)      22.  Ring indicator
6.  Data Set Ready           23.  Select Alternate Rate
7.  Signal Ground            24.  Transmit Clock
8.  Carrier Detect
 
   For higher speed connections, above 4800 or 9600, you
   need the flow control lines and Atari term software that
   has flow control built in. You also need an MIO or Black
   Box, which uses the PBI (parallel bus). A high speed
   cable would need not only XMT, RCV, and GND, but also
   flow control lines.  I suggest a commercial null modem
   from computer store to ensure correct lines.  A null
   modem is a small adapter with the correct lines already
   crossed. I don't know how to correctly connect the CTS,
   RTS, DTR, DSR, CRX lines for a high speed null modem.
   With a null modem, you just plug it into the 25 pin
   connectors of the two modem cables you might already
   have connected to your Atari and PC or Mac. You may need
   a straight thru 25 pin gender changer also.
 
   Following is in this FAQ elsewhere, but I summarize here:
   (Figure out or look for pin numbers on the ports.) Note
   that these are pin assignments, and NOT null modem
   connections with the XMT, RCV crossed and GND straight
   thru.
 
   Atari 8-bit  PC AT 25   PC AT 9 pin
   -------------------------------------
    1. DTR          20          4*
    2. CRX           8          1*
    3. XMT           2          3
    4. RCV           3          2*
    5. GND           7          5
    6. DSR           6          6
    7. RTS           4          7
    8. CTS           5          8
    9. No connect?   shield     RI
                  22 RI
 
Note: * above indicates the difference between an AT 9 pin
and a Atari 8-bit 9 pin cable connector. eg. If you check
continuity from pin 3 of 25 pin end and it goes to pin
4 of nine pin end, you have an Atari serial cable. If pin
3 of 25 pin goes to pin 2 of 9 pin end, you have a PC
serial cable.
(updated 3/1/99)
    (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment ie. your computer.
     DCE = Data Communications Equipment ie. your modem.)

------------------------------

Subject: 10.6) How can my PC utilize my Atari disk drive?

==> 1050-2-PC, by Nick Kennedy

1050-2-PC is a device used to allow the PC to communicate directly with an
Atari disk drive.  It requires hardware which is very similar to the SIO2PC
but configured differently.  It allows direct sector I/O with the Atari drive
and can be used to create disk iamges which will emulate copy protection
schemes when run on SIO2PC.

More 1050-2-PC information: http://www.cox-internet.com/wa5bdu/1050.txt
SIO2PC home page: http://www.cox-internet.com/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm


==> APE ProSystem, by Steve Tucker

The APE ProSystem goes beyond Steve Tucker's Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE).
The ProSystem has two components:

- The program PROSYS.EXE is used to create the protected and unprotected
disk images which are then used by APE.

- The ProSystem hardware is a cable designed to allow direct connection
of a stock 1050 disk drive directly to a PC's serial port for use by the
PROSYS.EXE software.

http://www.atarimax.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 10.7) What about interoperating with the Apple Macintosh?

Mark L. Simonson keeps a nice set of web pages which he calls "Mac/Atari
Fusion: Atari 8-bit Resources for Mac Users."  Please visit:

http://www2.bitstream.net/~marksim/atarimac/

------------------------------

Subject: 10.8) Are there 8-bit Atari tools for the Commodore Amiga? 

'551conv', freeware by Achim Hartel:
Converts a real Atari-800-disk, .xfd-image or .atr-image into a real
Atari-800-disk, .xfd-image, .atr-image or extracts the files of the 
disk (-image). All 4 formats of the XF551-station supported: Single, 
Medium, Double, Quad. Version 1.03.

------------------------------

Subject: 11.1) How did Atari get its name?

An article from:
The Atari Connection, Volume 1, Number 2, Summer 1981, p. 19.

"If ATARI Isn't a Japanese Company, Why Does It Have a Japanese Name?"

by Joel Miller 

The name ATARI is in fact a Japanese word, but the company is most definitely
American.  The evolution of the name ATARI is interesting and somewhat
complicated.  To get to the root of it, we spoke with Ted Dabney, one of the
founders.

In the beginning, three friends, who knew each other from previously working
at Ampex, decided to invent and market the first commercially feasible video
game.  They were Nolan Bushnell, Ted Dabney and Larry Bryan.  To become a
partner, each had to ante up $100--unbelievable today considering ATARI's
success!  The three were all sitting around Bushnell's house one day, drinking
beer and trying to figure out a name for their new company.  Bryan was
thumbing through the dictionary and came upon an interesting last listing in
the "S" section: Syzygy--"the straight-line configuration of three celestial
bodies." What a perfect name, they thought, for a company begun by three so
obviously astronomically talented people...

They invented the game Computer Space.  Things became a little shaky and Bryan
didn't ante up his $100.  Only Bushnell and Dabney remained.  They set up shop
in Santa Clara, California and incorporated the business.  A little later,
they invented Pong.

Bushnell and Dabney applied for the name Syzygy, but the Office of the
California Secretary of State, which regulates California corporations,
informed them that this name had already been taken by another California
corporation.  As this corporation didn't appear to be active, they tried to
buy the rights to the name; however, they were unsuccessful.  Their attorney
told them to identify a new corporate name.  They considered "BD, Inc." and
"DB, Inc." but these names too closely resembled Black & Decker Manufacturing
Inc. or Dunn and Bradstreet Inc.

Bushnell and Dabney were both players of Go, a Japanese strategy game.  Their
best brainstorming always occurred over beer and a good game of Go.  Being
preoccupied with Go at the moment, they decided to make a list of several Go
words and see if one of them would fly as the new corporate name.

First on the list was "Sente," which means "the upper hand."  Their second and
third choices were "Atari," which has similar meaning to the chess word
"check" and "Hanne," the acknowledgement of an overtaking move.

Bushnell and Dabney submitted the list to the Office of the California
Secretary of State.  A few weeks later, their incorporation papers came back;
the Office of the Secretary had selected their second choice, ATARI.  If
someone in the Office of the Secretary of State had decided to approve their
first choice, you might now be reading "THE SENTE CONNECTION."

When the name changed, Bushnell and Dabney wanted to change the logo too.  So
they incorporated both the "S" from Syzygy and the "A" from ATARI into the new
design.  If you look closely at the middle logo, you'll see both letters.
Some time later, as the company became more successful, an advertising agency
designed the slicker and now famous ATARI logo, the ATARI "fuji" or stylized
"A" design.
                                      Joel Miller is the Manager of Marketing
                                  Publications in the ATARI Computer Division.

------------------------------

Subject: 11.2) What is the history of Atari?

Here is a history of Atari, with heavy emphasis on the 400/800/XL/XE
computers.

1972
June 27: Atari, Incorporated was formed by Nolan K. Bushnell and Ted Dabney,
with an initial investment of US$500 (US$250 each.).  First location for the
company: Santa Clara, California, USA.

November: Pong, the first Atari product, shipped.

1973
Nolan Bushnell bought out Ted Dabney's share of Atari, making Bushnell the
sole owner.

1975
Atari shipped Home Pong.

1976
Atari headquarters moved to Sunnyvale, CA.

October 1: Nolan Bushnell sold Atari to Warner Communications, Inc. for US$28
million, as a way to secure funding for development of the Video Computer
System (VCS).  Bushnell stayed on at Atari as chairman.

1977
Atari shipped the VCS.

1978
March: Raymond E. Kassar joined Atari as a consultant, at the request of
Warner Communications.  Before Atari, Kassar had been an executive vice
president at Burlington Industries, the textiles company.

Ray Kassar became president of Atari's consumer products division.  In this
capacity, Kassar steered the ongoing development of home video game technology
into the development of a personal computer system.

October: Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI, headed by
Bob Shepardson) to create both a version of BASIC and a File Management System
(FMS) for the upcoming Atari personal computers. 

1979
January: Ray Kassar was president and chief executive of Atari.  Company
founder Nolan Bushnell was no longer with Atari.

January: The Atari 400 and Atari 800 Personal Computers Systems were
introduced at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas.  The
400 would come standard with 8K RAM and retail for US$500; the 800 would ship
with 8K RAM (user-expandable in 8K or 16K increments to 48K) and retail for
US$1,000. They were scheduled to ship in limited quantities in August 1979,
with full availability later in the fall.

January: Atari ran an advertisement for the 400/800 on pp. 54-55 of
_Merchandising_, vol. 4, no. 1, January 1979.  See:
http://home.centurytel.net/hunmanik/atariads/gallery.htm

January 8: Atari filed with the USPTO for a patent for a "Data processing
system with programmable graphics generator" (the 400/800 computer system).
Inventors listed: Mayer, Steven T. (Auburn, CA); Miner, Jay G. (Sunnyvale,
CA); Neubauer, Douglas G. (Santa Clara, CA); Decuir, Joseph C. (Mountain
View, CA).

Summer: Atari received FCC approval for the 400/800 computers.

August:
  "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on August 29th 1979.
  These were hand-built pilot run units to Sears that needed to be in stock by
  Sept. 1 so they could be placed in the big fall catalog.  The units were 
  placed in the Sears warehouse and then immediatly returned to Atari after
  the "in stock" requirement had been met."  --Jerry Jessop

September 4: The New York Times reported on p. D7, "Atari Inc., the maker of
home video games, will introduce two new personal computer systems in the
fall.  The inaugural ad campaign, created by Doyle Dane Bernbach, will break
in October in 12 national publications.  TV commercials will also be aired in
Los Angeles in November and December."

October: "Atari's production lines were stalled for about a week in October
due to yield problems at one of its chip suppliers, Synertek.  The low yields
at the semiconductor manufacturer resulted in significantly reduced delivery
of the MPU to Atari, resulting in about a 3-week delay in getting the
computers into the marketplace."  Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83.

November:
  "The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of '79 and were 400s
  to Sears followed very shortly by 800s."  --Jerry Jessop

November/December: The initial Atari 400 personal computer package consisted
of the 400 computer (8K RAM), 400 Operator's Manual, power supply, TV switch
box, CXL4002 Atari BASIC (cartridge), Atari BASIC: A Self-Teaching Guide
(book, see http://www.atariarchives.org/basic/).  Package retail: US$549.99.

November/December: The initial Atari 800 personal computer package consisted
of the 800 computer with 8K RAM module, 800 Operator's Manual, power supply,
TV switch box, 410 program recorder, CXL4001 Educational System Master
Cartridge, CXL4002 Atari BASIC (cartridge), CX-4101 An Invitation to
Programming 1: Fundamentals of Programming (cassette), Atari BASIC: A Self-
Teaching Guide (book, see http://www.atariarchives.org/basic/).  Package
retail: US$999.99.

December: "Atari is funneling large quantities of its 400 and 800 personal
computers and software to Sears, Roebuck, while retail computer stores have
been faced with late hardware deliveries and received very little, if any,
software.  Sears is offering the Atari 400, priced at $549.99, through its
catalog, and is spot-marketing the machine in its retail stores throughout
California and the Chicago area.  In addition, the firm is selling the Atari
800, priced at $999.99, in its California stores, but not through the catalog,
a Sears spokesman said."  Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83.

1980
Winter: Atari shipped the 810 disk drive and 820 printer.

Summer: Atari modified the 800 computer package.  The computer would now ship
with 16K RAM (up from 8K); the 410 program recorder and Educational System
Master Cartridge were removed from the package; the Atari BASIC Reference
Manual was added to the package.

Summer/Fall: Atari shipped the 825 printer, 830 modem, and 850 interface.

October: Roger H. Badertscher was named president of the newly established
Computer Division at Atari.  He was previously vice president and general
manager of the microprocessor division of Signetics, an electronics 
semiconductor manufacturer.

1981
Winter: Atari shipped the 822 printer.

Winter: The development rights to Atari BASIC, the Atari FMS (DOS) and the
Atari Assembler/Editor program were purchased from SMI by Bill Wilkinson for
his new company, Optimized Systems Software (OSS).

Spring: First issue of The Atari Connection, the glossy magazine published by
the Atari Computer Division in support of the 400/800. 

May 5: At the National Computer Conference in Chicago, Atari announced that
the 400 would now ship with 16K RAM (up from 8K).  The Atari BASIC cartridge 
and the Atari BASIC: A Self-Teaching Guide book were removed from the package.
The new package would now retail for US$399 (previously, US$630).

May: Atari launched the Atari Program Exchange (APX), a user-written software
distribution unit within the Atari Computer Division.  Guided by Fred Thorlin
since its inception in February 1981.  See http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/

Summer?: Atari created the Atari Institute for Educational Action Research,
which began awarding major grants of Atari home computer products, cash
stipends, and/or consulting services to selected individuals and non-profit
institutions or ogranizations interested in developing new educational uses
for computers in schools, community programs, or in the home.  Founded and
directed by Dr. Ted M. Kahn, Ph.D.  More than US$250,000 would be awarded in
the program's first year. 

Fall: Atari began shipping the 810 disk drive with DOS 2.0S (replacing
the original Atari DOS).  Developed by SMI/OSS for Atari. 

October: Atari 810 disk drives began shipping with ROM C, supporting a more
efficient sector layout, and the Data Separator Board, improving reliability.

October 20: The USPTO granted U.S. Patent 4,296,476 to Atari, for the 400/800
computer system.  Read the full text of the patent here:
http://makeashorterlink.com/?M2561456

November: Atari 400/800's began shipping with the new GTIA chip in place of
CTIA, increasing the palette of simultaneously displayable colors to 256 and
adding 3 new graphics modes.  400/800's also began shipping with OS ROM
version B, improving peripheral I/O control routines.

December 30: Atari said that it would cut the retail price for the 800 home
computer (with 16K RAM) to US$899 from US$1,080.

1982
Winter: Atari's Computer Division was renamed the Home Computer Division.

Winter: Ted Richards' name first appeared as editor of The Atari Connection
magazine.

June 8: Atari announced the 5200 Home Entertainment System.  Later dubbed the
SuperSystem, the cartridge-based 5200 would be marketed alongside the ultra-
popular Atari VCS (soon to be known as the 2600).  While the 5200 required
unique game cartridges and controllers, the internal hardware and operating
system were nearly identical to that of the 400/800 computers.  Suggested
retail price: US$299.95.

June: At the Summer CES in Chicago, Atari introduced the 835 modem, and
announced that the U.S. retail price for the 400 computer was reduced to
US$300.

June: Roger Badertscher resigned from his position as president of Atari's
Home Computer Division.

Summer: First year of Atari Computer Camps, held in 3 locations: The
University of San Diego (CA), The Asheville School (Asheville, NC), East
Stroudsburg State College (PA).

August 24: John C. Cavalier was named president of Atari's Home Computer
Division.  His most recent job was vice president and general manager of
American Can Company's Dixie and Dixie/Marathon unit, makers of consumer paper
products.

October: Atari shipped the 5200 SuperSystem.

September: Steven T. Mayer (chief inventor of the 400/800) resigned as senior
vice president of engineering at Atari to form WCI Labs, Inc. as a wholly
owned subsidiary of Warner Communications.  The unit would help develop the
next generation of Atari home computers, with Mayer as chairman and chief
executive.

December 13: Atari announced the 1200XL home computer at a press conference
in New York.  "We believe that the Atari 1200XL will set the standard for a
new generation in home computing and, once again, positions Atari on the
leading edge of electronic technology and creative computing," Atari chairman
Ray Kassar said.

Atari sold 400,000 of its 400 and 800 computers in 1982, according to The
Yankee Group, a Boston-based computer consulting firm, accounting for 17
percent of all home computer sales.

1983
January: Atari introduced the 1200XL computer at the Winter CES in Las Vegas.
Peripherals introduced: the 1010 program recorder and the 1020/1025 printers.

Winter: Atari shipped the 835 modem.

Winter: Atari shipped the AtariWriter cartridge, developed by William
Robinson (via DataSoft) for Atari.  He had previously written Text Wizard for
DataSoft.

Winter/March: Atari shipped the 1200XL, suggested retail price US$899.
While the 400/800 were produced domestically, the 1200XL and all future Atari
computers were manufactured overseas.

Winter/Spring: "Computers: Expressway to Tomorrow" was an Atari-produced
assembly program for junior and senior high schools in the U.S., offering both
entertainment and computer education using films, slides, music, and a live
host to explore the role of computers in society.  (MC's note: I remember that
this came to my school!)

March: The suggested retail price for the Atari 800 was US$679 with 48K RAM
standard.  (These late-production pre-expanded 800 units were delivered with
the expansion bay screwed shut.)

May: Production of Atari 400/800 computers and 810 disk drives ended.

Spring: The Atari 800 (with 48K RAM) would now retail for US$499.

June 2: Atari announced the consolidation of the Home Computer Division with
the Home Video Game Division.  The new combined division would have three
segments: Products (development and marketing), Sales and Distribution, and
Manufacturing.  The presidents of the three segments would report to Ray
Kassar, chairman and chief executive.  (Atari's other two divisions, Coin-
Operated Games and AtariTel, were not affected.)

June: At the summer CES in Chicago, Atari introduced the 600XL and 800XL home
computers.  The 400/800/1200XL would be discontinued.  (The 1400XL and 1450XLD
computers were also introduced, but these never made it into production.)
Peripherals introduced: the 1027 printer, 1030 modem, and 1050 disk drive.
(Also shown: the 1060 CP/M Add-On Module and the 1090 XL Expansion System,
neither of which made it into production.)

Summer: Atari Computer Camps expanded to seven sites nationwide (U.S.):
Greenfield MA, Faribault MN, East Stroudsburg PA, Asheville NC, Glencoe MD,
Danville CA, San Diego CA

June 11-Sept 10: Atari co-sponsored the Punta Cana Club Med/Atari Computer
vacation getaway on the island of Hispaniola in the Dominican Republic.

Summer: Atari's 48K Memory Expansion Kit was released, for both the 8K and
16K versions of the 400 Home Computer.

July 7: Warner Communications announced that Atari chairman Ray Kassar had
resigned, to be replaced by James J. Morgan.  Morgan was previously executive
vice president of Philip Morris USA, handling the company's US$4.3 billion
cigarette operations.

September 6: James Morgan arrived at Atari as chairman and chief executive
officer.

Sept83-June84: The "Catch On to Computers" program, a joint effort between
Atari and General Foods' Post Cereals, offered Atari computers, equipment, and
educational software to schools for collecting Post cereal proof-of-purchase
points over the 1983-1984 school year.

September: Ted Kahn stepped down as executive director of the Atari Institute
for Educational Action Research.  More than US$1 million worth of computers,
software, and cash stipends had been awared to over 100 nonprofit 
organizations since the program's founding in 1981.

Fall: Atari begin shipping the 1050 disk drive with DOS 3 (replacing DOS
2.0S).

Fall: The Atari 600XL/800XL both shipped, retail price US$199/$299, though
limited early production fell far short of initial demand.

October-December: "Catch on to Computers" computer literacy training programs
for children, adults, and teachers, sponsored by Atari and General Mills' Post
Cereals, ran in 10 cities across the U.S.

November: Atari opened the first Atari Adventure center in St. Louis, MO.  The
concept combined a traditional video game arcade with a hands-on public
computer classroom/lab featuring Atari XL computers, along with a new
technology display area.

1984
January 1: Atari increased U.S. dealer prices for the Atari 600XL and 800XL
by US$40 each, to US$180 and US$280, respectively.

January: (At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari again showed the highly-
anticipated 1450XLD, previously introduced at the Summer 1983 CES.  The
1450XLD did not make it into production.)
 
January 23: In an organizational realignment, most operations at Atari were
consolidated into a single division called Atari Products Company, under Atari
chairman and CEO James Morgan.

February: Atari 5200 production ended.

April: Atari shut down the APX operation, directed by Fred Thorlin since 1982.
Software rights were returned to the original authors.

May 21: Atari announced the 7800 ProSystem.  Atari also disclosed that the
5200 was no longer in production.  More than 1 million 5200's had been sold to
date. (Washington Post, May 22, 1984, C3)

June: (At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari again encouraged anticipation for
upcoming higher-end XL computers, but the 1450XLD first shown at the Summer
1983 CES had been dropped, and no newer models were ready for demonstration.)

July 2: The assets of the Atari home computer and home video game businesses
were sold by Warner Communications to Tramel Technology Ltd., which had been
formed in May 1984 by Jack Tramiel, founder and former president of Commodore
International.  The transaction included the "Atari" name and "Fuji" logo,
along with intangible property rights (patents, trademarks, and copyrights)
owned by Atari in conjunction with its computer and video game businesses, all
for exclusive use in all areas other than coin-operated video game use.

Warner received no cash, but received US$240 million in long-term notes and
warrants for a 32 percent interest in Tramiel's new venture.  Tramiel, in
return, received warrants giving him the right to purchase one million shares
of Warner common stock at US$22 a share.

Tramel Technology was renamed Atari Corporation, with Jack Tramiel as
chairman.

( You may be interested in "A Brief Timeline of the Atari Divisions Initially
  Retained by Warner Communications, July 1984 to Present" which is located
  at http://home.centurytel.net/hunmanik/atariholdings.html )

Summer: The new Atari Corp. initially halted all manufacturing.  Upon a review
of the existing product line, production of the 800XL and the 2600 was
resumed.  The 600XL was discontinued, the 5200 firmly abandonded, and the yet-
to-be-shipped 7800 canceled.  (Atari later re-introduced the 7800 in 1986.)
Atari Connection magazine was shut down.  

July 13: Warner Communications announced the sale of 78% of its WCI Labs
subsidiary (internal co-developer of the Atari XL computers) to WCI Labs'
management.  As a result of the transaction, which was made effective
retroactive to June 1, 1984, a new privately held company, the Take One
Company, was formed, with Steven T. Mayer as chairman and chief executive.
Warner Communications initially retained 22% ownership of Take One.

August: Atari reduced the retail price for the 800XL from US$250 to US$179.

November 13: Atari chairman Jack Tramiel declared that "business is war" and
announced the U.S. price for the 800XL would be reduced from US$179 to US$119.

December 6: It was reported that Atari would make an immediate 23 per cent
reduction to DM 499 (US$160) in the price of its 800XL home computer in West
Germany and similar cuts in the UK and Italy.  Atari estimated the company's
share of the West German home computer market at 8%, compared with 2% in 1983.
In the UK, the 800XL price cut was from 170 to 130 pounds.

"The 800XL has sold almost 500,000 units through 1984" --Atari's Sigmund 
Hartmann, Atari Explorer magazine, Summer 1985, p. 33.

1985
January: Atari introduced the 65XE and 130XE home computers at the Winter CES
in Las Vegas.  The 800XL would be discontinued.  (The 65XEM and 65XEP
computers were also shown, but these never made it into production.)
Peripherals introduced: the XMM801/XDM121 printers and the XM301 modem.  (Also
introduced: the XTM201/XTC201 printers, XC1411/XM128 monitors, and XF521 disk
drive, but these never made it into production.)  Also introduced: the Atari
ST personal computers, including the 520ST.

February: First issue of Atari Explorer magazine, the glossy published by
Atari (U.S.) Corp. in support of the XE and ST computers.  Headed by Neil
Harris.

April: Atari shipped the 130XE, retail price US$149.95.  (The 65XE was held
out of production due to ample supply of the 800XL.)

April: Atari began shipping the 1050 disk drive with DOS 2.5 (replacing
DOS 3).

Spring?: John Skruch became XE line product manager at Atari.

Fall: Atari shipped the disk-based AtariWriter Plus, developed by Micro
Fantasy (William Robinson; Mail Merge module: Ron Rosen) and R. Stanley
Kistler (Proofreader module).  Manual by Jeffrey D. Bass.  AtariWriter Plus
was a complete rewrite of AtariWriter, and the package included a version for
48K/64K Atari computers as well as a version supporting the 128K RAM of the
130XE.

Fall: Atari shipped the XM301 modem.

1986
January: Atari announced the XC11 program recorder at the Winter CES in Las
Vegas.  Also: a new "2600jr" version of the 2600 was introduced, the 7800
ProSystem (first announced in May 1984 but not shipped) was re-introduced, and
the 1040ST personal computer was introduced.

Winter: Atari shipped the XMM801 printer.

March: Atari introduced the XEP80 interface at the German Hanover Fair.

Summer: Atari shipped the 65XE, retail price US$99.95.

Sept/Oct: First issue of Atari Explorer magazine produced by the new
subsidiary, Atari Explorer Publications Corp. of Mendham, NJ, headed by David
H. Ahl, former editor of Creative Computing magazine.

November 7: Initial public offering of shares of Atari Corp. common stock on
the American Stock Exchange, under ticker symbol ATC.  Atari chairman Jack
Tramiel and his associates retained control over the company.

November: Atari showed the SX212 modem and the XEP80 interface at the Fall
COMDEX show in Las Vegas.

1987
January: Atari showed the XE Game System for the first time at the Winter CES
in Las Vegas.  Also introduced: the Mega ST personal computers and the PC/XT-
compatible Atari PC.

February: The Atari XE Game System was "formally introduced" by Atari at New
York's American/International Toy Fair.

June: Atari introduced the XF551 disk drive at the Summer CES in Chicago
(ending anticipation for a 3.5" disk drive for the XE).

Summer: Atari shipped the XDM121 printer.

September: Atari shipped the XEP80 interface and the SX212 modem (SX-Express!
disk software to be sold separately upon its completion).

Fall: Atari shipped the XE Game System in late September, and it reached most
dealer shelves by mid-October, retail price US$150.

October 4: Atari acquired all the outstanding capital stock of The Federated
Group, Inc., a retailer of consumer electronic and home entertainment products
with 91 outlets in Arizona, California, Kansas, New Mexico and Texas for $64.1
million in cash.

November: At the fall Comdex show Atari introduced the ABAQ, later named the
Atari Transputer Workstation (ATW), along with the PC/XT-compatible Atari PC2
and the PC/AT-compatible Atari PC3 computers.

December: Atari sold 100,000 XE Game Systems in the U.S. at Christmas and did
not meet demand (Antic magazine, May 1988, p. 39)

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "In Czechoslovakia, the German
Democratic Republic, and Poland the Atari 800XE and 65XE computers have gained
brand dominance and are among the most popular systems being sold in these
countries."

1988
January: Atari shipped the XF551 disk drive (with DOS 2.5).

November: At the fall Comdex show in Las Vegas Atari introduced the PC/AT-
compatible Atari PC4 and the 80386-based OS/2-compatible Atari PC5 computers.

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "Our XE line of 8-bit computer
systems is extremely popular throughout Eastern Europe, and most recently, has
begun to appear on retail shelves in the Soviet Union."

1989
January: Atari shipped DOS XE, and also began shipping the XF551 disk drive
with DOS XE (replacing DOS 2.5).  Developed by Bill Wilkinson for Atari.

March: The Atari board of directors gave final approval to the decision to
discontinue the operation of Federated.  All stores in the money-losing chain
would be closed or sold by the end of 1990.

Spring: At the Spring Comdex show Atari introduced the STacy laptop computer
(ST compatible) and the Portfolio palmtop computer (MS-DOS compatible).

May/June: Premier issue of Atarian magazine, "the official magazine of the
Atarian Video Game Club sponsored by Atari (U.S.) Corp."  Published by Atari
Explorer Publications, David H. Ahl, Publisher/Editor, in support of the 2600,
7800, and XE Game System.

June: At the Summer CES Atari introduced the Portable Color Entertainment
System, re-named the Lynx by the time it shipped.

Summer: Atari shipped AtariWriter 80, developed by William Robinson and Ron
Rosen (via Micro Fantasy) for Atari.  Package included Proofreader and
Mail Merge, and required the XEP80 interface. 

October: Third and final issue of Atarian magazine.

September: At the Atari show in Duesseldorf Atari introduced the STE personal
computers along with the TT030 computer workstation.

November 9: Atari said it had agreed to sell 26 of its Federated Group
consumer electronics stores to Silo Inc., a Philadelphia-based electronics
retailer.  Silo would take over 21 Federated stores in Los Angeles and Orange
counties and five in San Diego.  After the transation Atari would still own 14
Federated stores in Texas, Kansas and Arizona.

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "sales of games products such as
the 2600 and 7800 game systems and the range of older XE 8 bit computers
decreased by 35% to $101.6 million, or 24% of total net sales for the year
ended December 31, 1989, from $155.5 million, or 34%, of total net sales in
1988."  From the Atari 10-K: "The Company's traditional video game offerings
include the 2600 VCS, the 7800 ProSystem, and the XE Game System."

1990
March 15: Atari Explorer Publications was shut down, and Atari Explorer
magazine went on hiatus.

Winter/Spring?: Atari introduced the Atari ABC 286/30 PC-compatible computer.

May?: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that last year, 250,000
XE computers were sold.  In Poland, the XE sold 70,000 units, making it the
most popular computer in Poland. (Atari Interface, June/July 1990, p. 6)

November: At the fall Comdex show in Las Vegas Atari introduced the Mega STE
personal computers.

1991
Jan/Feb: Return of Atari Explorer magazine, now headed by John Jainschigg in-
house at Atari.

March: At the CeBIT show in Hannover, Atari introduced the STBook notebook
computer. (Atari also introduced the STPad, later known as the STylus, but
this never made it into production.)

May: "Atari Canada's General Manager Geoff Earle announces a new trade up
program for owners of Atari 8-bit computers to a 520STFM for $250.  The 8-bit
computer line is admitted to be discontinued."  (AtariUser Jan'92, p. 20)

May 14: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE was still
in production, being sold in South America, Eastern Europe and the Middle
East. (Atari Interface magazine, June 1991, p. 10)

October: At the fall Comdex show Atari introduced the Atari ABC 386SX and ABC
386DX desktop PC-compatible computers and the ABC N386SX laptop PC-compatible
computer.

November 23-24: Chicago Computerfest by Atari / Lake County Atari Computer
Enthusiasts (LCACE), Ramada Hotel O'Hare, Rosemont, Illinois.  Atari (U.S.)
brought substantially all of their remaining inventory of 8-bit computer
products for clearance sale.

December 28: From the Atari 10-K SEC filing: "Atari's XE series computers are
targeted for the price conscious markets.  The 65XE and 130XE have 64k and
128k of internal RAM, and generally retail for less than $100 and $150,
respectively.  Both are supported by a variety of peripheral equipment and a
variety of software titles including entertainment software.  This computer
line retains compatibility with the Company's previous generation 8-bit
computer systems, i.e., the 400 and 800XL computers."

1992
Atari announced that support for all 8-bit products was discontinued as of the
beginning of this year, according to Atari Classics magazine. (Dec. 1992, p.4)

June 2: At the Atari stockholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE line of
computers was still being made.  Though not available in the U.S. market, XE
systems were being made for sale in Mexico, South America, Eastern Europe and
Germany. (Atari Interface magazine, Fall 1992, p. 19)  These were apparently
800XE computers, manufactured in China.

August: Atari introduced the Falcon030 personal integrated media computer
system at the Dusseldorf AtariMesse.

December 31: For the first time, the XE was not mentioned in Atari's Annual
Report to Shareholders.

1993
Jan/Feb: Final issue of Atari Explorer magazine.

August 18: Atari introduced the Jaguar 64-bit interactive multimedia system at
a press conference held at company headquarters in Sunnyvale, Calif.

1994
January 1: From the Atari Annual Report: "The Company also has some inventory
of its older 16-bit computer products and 8-bit game products, namely ST and
TT series of computers, 2600 and 7800 video games systems and XE computer and
Portfolio products.  As a result of these inventories being technologically
obsolete and noncompetitive, the Company has written off these inventories.
The Company is expecting minimal sales from these products in the future."

1996
July 31: Atari merged with pivately-held hard disk drive maker JTS (Jugi
Tandon Storage) Corp.  The resulting company adopted the name of JTS Corp.
and the officers of JTS, along with Jack Tramiel from Atari, became the
officers of the merged company.  Atari stockholders became stockholders in
JTS.  For accounting purposes the merger was accounted for as a purchase of
JTS by Atari.

The prior business of Atari would now be conducted through the Atari Division
of JTS; however "the Atari Division was not expected to represent a
significant portion of JTS business," JTS said.

1996-1998
The Atari Division of JTS was responsible for selling off remaining Atari
product inventories.

1998
February 23: JTS sold substantially all of the assets of the its Atari
Division, consisting primarily of Atari intellectual property rights and
license agreements, to HIAC XI Corp., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hasbro
Interactive (itself a unit of toy company Hasbro, Inc.), for US$5 million.
HIAC XI was then renamed Atari Interactive, Inc.

  (JTS filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection on December 11, 1998, and
   then converted it to Chapter 7 (liquidation) on February 28, 1999.)

1998-2001
Hasbro Interactive produced games for home computers and gaming platforms,
sometimes utilizing the Atari brand and the Atari Interactive name.  Atari
Interactive was sometimes termed "a Hasbro Affiliate."

2001
January 29: Infogrames Entertainment announced completion of its acquisition
of Hasbro Interactive from Hasbro, renaming the subsidiary Infogrames
Interactive, Inc.  Atari Interactive, including all its assets, properties and
licenses, was also included in the transaction.  Atari Interactive became a
wholly owned subsidiary of Infogrames Interactive.

2001-2003
Infogrames utilized the Atari brand on some of its "premiere" gaming titles.

2003
February 12: JAKKS Pacific announced the Atari 10-in-1 TV Games device.

May 7: Infogrames adopted the Atari brand and registered trademark for all
operations.  Accordingly, NASDAQ-traded Infogrames, Inc. became Atari, Inc.
(symbol: ATAR).  Operations were split into Atari, Inc. and Atari Europe, with
Infogrames Entertainment remaining the name of the parent holding company.
Additionally, the Infogrames Interactive subsidiary and its Atari Interactive
subunit were folded together, with the resulting unit adopting the Atari
Interactive name.

2004
February 15: JAKKS Pacific announced the Atari Paddle TV Games device, to ship
spring 2004.

September 7: Atari announced the Atari Flashback Classic Game Console, to
ship in November 2004.

2005
April 27: Atari announced the Flashback 2.0 game console, to ship summer 2005.

TODAY: The Atari copyrights/trademarks/patents associated with the 8-bit Atari
computer line, along with all other Atari intellectual properties secured by
Atari Corp. from Warner Communications in 1984, and along with all Atari Corp.
and Atari Interactive properties created since 1984, are owned by the Atari
Interactive unit of Atari, Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of Infogrames
Entertainment.

Infogrames Entertainment (IESA), the parent company of the Atari Group, is 
listed on the Paris Euronext stock exchange (ISIN code: FR-0000052573) and has
two principal subsidiaries: Atari Europe, a privately-held company, and 
Atari, Inc., a United States corporation listed on NASDAQ (ATAR).

The Atari Group is a major international producer, publisher and distributor
of interactive entertainment software for all market segments and in all
existing game formats (Microsoft, Nintendo and Sony) and on CD-ROM for PC. Its
games are sold in more than 60 countries.

The Atari Group's extensive catalogue of popular games is based on original 
franchises (Driver, Alone in the Dark, V-Rally, Unreal Tournament, Test Drive,
Roller Coaster Tycoon, etc.) and international licenses (Matrix, Dragon Ball
Z, Dungeons & Dragons, ...).

For more information: <http://www.atari.com/>

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